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Dosage and administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION General Information Esomeprazole sodium for injection should not be administered concomitantly with any other medications through the same intravenous site and/or tubing. The intravenous line should always be flushed with either 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP both prior to and after administration of esomeprazole sodium for injection. The admixture should be stored at room temperature up to 30°C (86°F) and should be administered within the designated time period as listed in Table 1 below. No refrigeration is required. Table 1: Storage Time for Final (diluted) Product Diluent Administer within: 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP 12 hours Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP 12 hours 5% Dextrose Injection, USP 6 hours Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. As soon as oral therapy is possible or appropriate, intravenous therapy with esomeprazole sodium for injection should be discontinued and the therapy should be continued orally. GERD – with Erosive Esophagitis. (2.1): Adults: Dose is either 20 mg or 40 mg esomeprazole given once daily by intravenous injection (no less than 3 minutes) or intravenous infusion (10 minutes to 30 minutes). Pediatrics: Give the following doses once daily as an intravenous infusion over 10 minutes to 30 minutes. (2.1): 1 year to 17 years: Body weight less than 55 kg: 10 mg Body weight 55 kg or greater: 20 mg 1 month to less than 1 year of age: 0.5 mg/kg For patients with severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh Class C), a maximum dose of 20 mg once daily of esomeprazole should not be exceeded. (2.1, 8.6, 12.3) Risk Reduction of Rebleeding of Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers in the first 72 hours following therapeutic endoscopy in Adults. (2.2): 80 mg intravenous infusion given over 30 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 8 mg/h over 3 days (72 hours). Dose adjustments are needed in patients with liver impairment. (2.2, 8.6, 12.3) For patients with bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcers and mild to moderate liver impairment (Child-Pugh Classes A and B), a maximum continuous infusion of 6 mg/h should not be exceeded. For patients with severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh Class C), a maximum continuous infusion of 4 mg/h should not be exceeded. 2.1 GERD with Erosive Esophagitis Adult Patients The recommended adult dose is either 20 mg or 40 mg esomeprazole given once daily by intravenous injection (no less than 3 minutes) or intravenous infusion (10 minutes to 30 minutes). Safety and efficacy of esomeprazole sodium for injection as a treatment of GERD patients with erosive esophagitis for more than 10 days have not been demonstrated. Dosage adjustment is not required in patients with mild to moderate liver impairment (Child-Pugh Classes A and B). For patients with severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh Class C), a maximum dose of 20 mg once daily of esomeprazole should not be exceeded [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Pediatric Patients The recommended doses for children ages 1 month to 17 years, inclusive, are provided below. Dose should be infused over 10 minutes to 30 minutes. 1 year to 17 years: Body weight less than 55 kg: 10 mg Body weight 55 kg or greater: 20 mg 1 month to less than 1 year of age: 0.5 mg/kg 2.2 Risk Reduction of Rebleeding of Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers following Therapeutic Endoscopy in Adults Adult dose is 80 mg administered as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes followed by a continuous infusion of 8 mg/h for a total treatment duration of 72 hours (i.e., includes initial 30-minute dose plus 71.5 hours of continuous infusion). Intravenous therapy is aimed solely at the acute initial management of bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcers and does not constitute full treatment. Intravenous therapy should be followed by oral acid-suppressive therapy. For patients with liver impairment, no dosage adjustment of the initial esomeprazole 80 mg infusion is necessary. For patients with mild to moderate liver impairment (Child-Pugh Classes A and B), a maximum continuous infusion of esomeprazole 6 mg/h should not be exceeded. For patients with severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh Class C), a maximum continuous infusion of 4 mg/h should not be exceeded [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 2.3 Preparation and Administration Instructions General Information The reconstituted solution of esomeprazole sodium for injection should be stored at room temperature up to 30°C (86°F) and administered within 12 hours after reconstitution. (Administer within 6 hours if 5% Dextrose Injection is used after reconstitution). No refrigeration is required [see Dosage and Administration (2), Table 1]. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with Erosive Esophagitis Preparation Instructions for Adult Patients Intravenous Injection (20 mg or 40 mg vial) over no less than 3 minutes The freeze-dried powder should be reconstituted with 5 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. Withdraw 5 mL of the reconstituted solution and administer as an intravenous injection over no less than 3 minutes. Preparation Instructions for Pediatric Patients Intravenous Infusion (20 mg or 40 mg) over 10 minutes to 30 minutes A solution for intravenous infusion is prepared by first reconstituting the contents of one vial* with 5 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP, Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP or 5% Dextrose Injection, USP and further diluting the resulting solution to a final volume of 50 mL. The resultant concentration after diluting to a final volume of 50 mL is 0.8 mg/mL (for 40 mg vial) and 0.4 mg/mL (for 20 mg vial). The solution (admixture) should be administered as an intravenous infusion over a period of 10 minutes to 30 minutes. * For patients 1 month to less than 1 year of age, first calculate the dose (0.5 mg/kg) to determine the vial size needed. Risk Reduction of Rebleeding of Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers in Adults Preparation Instructions for Loading dose (80 mg) to be given over 30 minutes The loading dose of 80 mg is prepared by reconstituting two 40 mg vials. Reconstitute each 40 mg vial with 5 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. The contents of the two vials should be further diluted in 100 mL 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP for intravenous use. Administer over 30 minutes. Preparation Instructions for Continuous Infusion to be given at 8 mg/hour for 71.5 hours The continuous infusion is prepared by using two 40 mg vials. Reconstitute each 40 mg vial with 5 mL each of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. The contents of the two vials should be further diluted in 100 mL 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP for intravenous use. Administer at a rate of 8 mg/hour for 71.5 hours.

Table 1: Storage Time for Final (diluted) Product
Diluent Administer within:
0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP 12 hours
Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP 12 hours
5% Dextrose Injection, USP 6 hours

Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with esomeprazole in pregnant women. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole. Available epidemiologic data fail to demonstrate an increased risk of major congenital malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with first trimester omeprazole use. Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits resulted in dose-dependent embryo-lethality at omeprazole doses that were approximately 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg (based on a body surface area for a 60 kg person). Teratogenicity was not observed in animal reproduction studies with administration of oral esomeprazole magnesium in rats and rabbits with doses about 68 times and 42 times, respectively, an oral human dose of 40 mg (based on a body surface area basis for a 60 kg person). Changes in bone morphology were observed in offspring of rats dosed through most of pregnancy and lactation at doses equal to or greater than approximately 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg. When maternal administration was confined to gestation only, there were no effects on bone physeal morphology in the offspring at any age [see Data]. The estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Data Human Data Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole. Four epidemiological studies compared the frequency of congenital abnormalities among infants born to women who used omeprazole during pregnancy with the frequency of abnormalities among infants of women exposed to H2 receptor antagonists or other controls. A population based retrospective cohort epidemiological study from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, covering approximately 99% of pregnancies, from 1995 to 99, reported on 955 infants (824 exposed during the first trimester with 39 of these exposed beyond first trimester, and 131 exposed after the first trimester) whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy. The number of infants exposed in utero to omeprazole that had any malformation, low birth weight, low Apgar score, or hospitalization was similar to the number observed in this population. The number of infants born with ventricular septal defects and the number of stillborn infants was slightly higher in the omeprazole-exposed infants than the expected number in this population. A population-based retrospective cohort study covering all live births in Denmark from 1996 to 2009, reported on 1,800 live births whose mothers used omeprazole during the first trimester of pregnancy and 837,317 live births whose mothers did not use any proton pump inhibitor. The overall rate of birth defects in infants born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole was 2.9% and 2.6% in infants born to mothers not exposed to any proton pump inhibitor during the first trimester. A retrospective cohort study reported on 689 pregnant women exposed to either H2-blockers or omeprazole in the first trimester (134 exposed to omeprazole) and 1,572 pregnant women unexposed to either during the first trimester. The overall malformation rate in offspring born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole, an H2-blocker, or were unexposed was 3.6%, 5.5%, and 4.1% respectively. A small prospective observational cohort study followed 113 women exposed to omeprazole during pregnancy (89% with first trimester exposures). The reported rate of major congenital malformations was 4% in the omeprazole group, 2% in controls exposed to non-teratogens, and 2.8% in disease paired controls. Rates of spontaneous and elective abortions, preterm deliveries, gestational age at delivery, and mean birth weight were similar among the groups. Several studies have reported no apparent adverse short-term effects on the infant when single dose oral or intravenous omeprazole was administered to over 200 pregnant women as premedication for cesarean section under general anesthesia. Animal Data Omeprazole Reproductive studies conducted with omeprazole in rats at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at doses up to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) during organogenesis did not disclose any evidence for a teratogenic potential of omeprazole. In rabbits, omeprazole in a dose range of 6.9 to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy disruptions. In rats, dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity were observed in offspring resulting from parents treated with omeprazole at 13.8 to 138.0 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis), administered prior to mating through the lactation period. Esomeprazole No effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in reproduction studies with esomeprazole magnesium in rats at oral doses up to 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) or in rabbits at oral doses up to 86 mg/kg/day (about 41 times the human dose on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis. A pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Neonatal/early postnatal (birth to weaning) survival was decreased at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Body weight and body weight gain were reduced and neurobehavioral or general developmental delays in the immediate post-weaning timeframe were evident at doses equal to or greater than 69 mg/kg/day (about 17 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). In addition, decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses equal to or greater than 14 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Physeal dysplasia in the femur was observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of esomeprazole magnesium at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in a pre- and postnatal toxicity study when esomeprazole magnesium was administered at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). When rats were dosed from gestational day 7 through weaning on postnatal day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). A pre- and postnatal development study in rats with esomeprazole strontium (using equimolar doses compared to esomeprazole magnesium study) produced similar results in dams and pups as described above. A follow up developmental toxicity study in rats with further time points to evaluate pup bone development from postnatal day 2 to adulthood was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) where esomeprazole administration was from either gestational day 7 or gestational day 16 until parturition. When maternal administration was confined to gestation only, there were no effects on bone physeal morphology in the offspring at any age.

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Esomeprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that esomeprazole is not likely to inhibit CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4. No clinically relevant interactions with drugs metabolized by these CYP enzymes would be expected. Drug interaction studies have shown that esomeprazole does not have any clinically significant interactions with phenytoin, warfarin, quinidine, clarithromycin or amoxicillin. Post-marketing reports of changes in prothrombin measures have been received among patients on concomitant warfarin and esomeprazole therapy. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time. Esomeprazole may potentially interfere with CYP2C19, the major esomeprazole metabolizing enzyme. Co-administration of esomeprazole 30 mg and diazepam, a CYP2C19 substrate, resulted in a 45% decrease in clearance of diazepam. Increased plasma levels of diazepam were observed 12 hours after dosing and onwards. However, at that time, the plasma levels of diazepam were below the therapeutic interval, and thus this interaction is unlikely to be of clinical relevance. Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. Concomitant use of esomeprazole 40 mg results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition. Avoid concomitant administration of esomeprazole with clopidogrel. When using esomeprazole, consider use of alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Omeprazole acts as an inhibitor of CYP2C19. Omeprazole, given in doses of 40 mg daily for one week to 20 healthy subjects in cross-over study, increased Cmax and AUC of cilostazol by 18% and 26%, respectively. Cmax and AUC of one of its active metabolites, 3,4-dihydro-cilostazol, which has 4 to 7 times the activity of cilostazol, were increased by 29% and 69%, respectively. Co-administration of cilostazol with esomeprazole is expected to increase concentrations of cilostazol and its above mentioned active metabolite. Therefore, a dose reduction of cilostazol from 100 mg twice daily to 50 mg twice daily should be considered. Concomitant administration of esomeprazole and a combined inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, such as voriconazole, may result in more than doubling of the esomeprazole exposure. Dose adjustment of esomeprazole is not normally required for the recommended doses. However, in patients who may require higher doses, dose adjustment may be considered. Drugs known to induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as rifampin) may lead to decreased esomeprazole serum levels. Omeprazole, of which esomeprazole is an enantiomer, has been reported to interact with St. John’s Wort, an inducer of CYP3A4. In a cross-over study in 12 healthy male subjects, St. John’s Wort (300 mg three times daily for 14 days) significantly decreased the systemic exposure of omeprazole in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 37.5% and 37.9%, respectively) and extensive metabolizers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 49.6% and 43.9%, respectively). Avoid concomitant use of St. John’s Wort or rifampin with esomeprazole. Co-administration of oral contraceptives, diazepam, phenytoin, or quinidine did not seem to change the pharmacokinetic profile of esomeprazole. Concomitant use of atazanavir and proton pump inhibitors is not recommended. Co-administration of atazanavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to substantially decrease atazanavir plasma concentrations and thereby reduce its therapeutic effect. Omeprazole has been reported to interact with some antiretroviral drugs. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known. Increased gastric pH during omeprazole treatment may change the absorption of the antiretroviral drug. Other possible interaction mechanisms are via CYP2C19. For some antiretroviral drugs, such as atazanavir and nelfinavir, decreased serum levels have been reported when given together with omeprazole. Following multiple doses of nelfinavir (1250 mg, twice daily) and omeprazole (40 mg daily), AUC was decreased by 36% and 92%, Cmax by 37% and 89% and Cmin by 39% and 75%, respectively, for nelfinavir and M8. Following multiple doses of atazanavir (400 mg daily) and omeprazole (40 mg daily, 2 hr before atazanavir), AUC was decreased by 94%, Cmax by 96%, and Cmin by 95%. Concomitant administration with omeprazole and drugs such as atazanavir and nelfinavir is therefore not recommended. For other antiretroviral drugs, such as saquinavir, elevated serum levels have been reported with an increase in AUC by 82%, in Cmax by 75% and in Cmin by 106% following multiple dosing of saquinavir/ritonavir (1000/100 mg) twice daily for 15 days with omeprazole 40 mg daily co-administered days 11 to 15. Dose reduction of saquinavir should be considered from the safety perspective for individual patients. There are also some antiretroviral drugs of which unchanged serum levels have been reported when given with omeprazole. Studies evaluating concomitant administration of esomeprazole and either naproxen (non-selective NSAID) or rofecoxib (COX-2 selective NSAID) did not identify any clinically relevant changes in the pharmacokinetic profiles of esomeprazole or these NSAIDs. Due to its effects on gastric acid secretion, esomeprazole can reduce the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability. Like with other drugs that decrease the intragastric acidity, the absorption of drugs such as ketoconazole, atazanavir, iron salts, erlotinib, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can decrease, while the absorption of drugs such as digoxin can increase during treatment with esomeprazole. Esomeprazole is an enantiomer of omeprazole. Concomitant treatment with omeprazole (20 mg daily) and digoxin in healthy subjects increased the bioavailability of digoxin by 10% (30% in two subjects). Co-administration of digoxin with esomeprazole is expected to increase the systemic exposure of digoxin. Therefore, patients may need to be monitored when digoxin is taken concomitantly with esomeprazole. Co-administration of omeprazole in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving esomeprazole and MMF. Use esomeprazole with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Esomeprazole may interfere with drugs for which gastric pH affects bioavailability (e.g., ketoconazole, iron salts, erlotinib, digoxin and mycophenolate mofetil). Patients treated with esomeprazole and digoxin may need to be monitored for digoxin toxicity. (7) Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time. (7) Esomeprazole may reduce the plasma levels of atazanavir, nelfinavir, and saquinavir. (7) Concomitant treatment with a combined inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, such as voriconazole, may result in more than doubling of the esomeprazole exposure. (7) May increase systemic exposure of cilostazol and an active metabolite. Consider dose reduction. (7) Clopidogrel: Esomeprazole decreases exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel. (7) Tacrolimus: Esomeprazole may increase serum levels of tacrolimus. (7.2) Methotrexate: Esomeprazole may increase serum levels of methotrexate. (7.3) 7.1 Interactions with Investigations of Neuroendocrine Tumors Drug-induced decrease in gastric acidity results in enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased Chromogranin A levels which may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. 7.2 Tacrolimus Concomitant administration of esomeprazole and tacrolimus may increase the serum levels of tacrolimus. 7.3 Methotrexate Case reports, published population pharmacokinetic studies, and retrospective analyses suggest that concomitant administration of PPIs and methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate. However, no formal drug interaction studies of methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Esomeprazole sodium for injection is a proton pump inhibitor indicated for the treatment of: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with erosive esophagitis (EE) in adults and pediatric patients greater than one month of age, when oral therapy is not possible or appropriate. (1.1) Risk Reduction of Rebleeding of Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers following therapeutic endoscopy in adults. (1.2) 1.1 Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with Erosive Esophagitis Esomeprazole sodium for injection is indicated for the short-term treatment of GERD with erosive esophagitis in adults and pediatric patients 1 month to 17 years, inclusively as an alternative to oral therapy when oral esomeprazole is not possible or appropriate. 1.2 Risk Reduction of Rebleeding of Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers following Therapeutic Endoscopy in Adults Esomeprazole sodium for injection is indicated for risk reduction of rebleeding in patients following therapeutic endoscopy for acute bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcers in adults.

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Acid Suppression in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Four multicenter, open-label, two-period crossover studies were conducted to compare the pharmacodynamic efficacy of the intravenous formulation of esomeprazole (20 mg and 40 mg) to that of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules at corresponding doses in patients with symptoms of GERD, with or without erosive esophagitis. The patients (n=206, 18 to 72 years old; 112 female; 110 Caucasian, 50 Black, 10 Asian, and 36 Other Race) were randomized to receive either 20 or 40 mg of intravenous or oral esomeprazole once daily for 10 days (Period 1), and then were switched in Period 2 to the other formulation for 10 days, matching their respective dose level from Period 1. The intravenous formulation was administered as a 3-minute injection in two of the studies, and as a 15-minute infusion in the other two studies. Basal acid output (BAO) and maximal acid output (MAO) were determined 22 to 24 hours post-dose on Period 1, Day 11; on Period 2, Day 3; and on Period 2, Day 11. BAO and MAO were estimated from 1-hour continuous collections of gastric contents prior to and following (respectively) subcutaneous injection of 6.0 mcg/kg of pentagastrin. In these studies, after 10 days of once daily administration, the intravenous dosage forms of esomeprazole 20 mg and 40 mg were similar to the corresponding oral dosage forms in their ability to suppress BAO and MAO in these GERD patients (see table below). There were no major changes in acid suppression when switching between intravenous and oral dosage forms. Table 6: Mean (SD) BAO and MAO Measured 22 to 24 hours Post-Dose Following Once Daily Oral and Intravenous Administration of Esomeprazole for 10 days in GERD Patients with or without a History of Erosive Esophagitis Study Dose in mg Intravenous Administration Method BAO in mmol H+/h MAO in mmol H+/h Intravenous Oral Intravenous Oral 1 (N=42) 20 3-minute injection 0.71 (1.24) 0.69 (1.24) 5.96 (5.41) 5.27 (5.39) 2 (N=44) 20 15-minute infusion 0.78 (1.38) 0.82 (1.34) 5.95 (4.00) 5.26 (4.12) 3 (N=50) 40 3-minute injection 0.36 (0.61) 0.31 (0.55) 5.06 (3.90) 4.41 (3.11) 4 (N=47) 40 15-minute infusion 0.36 (0.79) 0.22 (0.39) 4.74 (3.65) 3.52 (2.86) 14.2 Bleeding Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, 764 patients were randomized to receive esomeprazole sodium for injection (n=375) or placebo (n=389). The population was 18 to 98 years old; 68% Male, 87% Caucasian, 1% Black, 7% Asian, 4% Other, who presented with endoscopically confirmed gastric or duodenal ulcer bleeding. Following endoscopic hemostasis, patients were randomized to either 80 mg esomeprazole as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes followed by a continuous infusion of 8 mg per hour for a total of 72 hours or to placebo for 72 hours. After the initial 72­-hour period, all patients received oral proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 27 days. The occurrence of rebleeding within 3 days of randomization was 5.9% in the esomeprazole treated group compared to 10.3% for the placebo group (treatment difference -4.4%; 95% confidence interval: -8.3%, -0.6%; p=0.03). This treatment difference was similar to that observed at Day 7 and Day 30, during which all patients were receiving an oral PPI. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled single-center study conducted in Hong Kong also demonstrated a reduction compared to placebo in the risk of rebleeding within 72 hours in patients with bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcers who received racemic omeprazole, 50% of which is the S­-enantiomer esomeprazole.

Warnings And Cautions

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Gastric Malignancy: In adults, symptomatic response to therapy with esomeprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. Consider additional follow-up and diagnostic testing. (5.1) Acute Interstitial Nephritis: Observed in patients taking PPIs. (5.2) Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea: PPI therapy may be associated with increased risk. (5.3) Bone Fracture: Long-term and multiple daily dose PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. (5.4) Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Mostly cutaneous; new onset or exacerbation of existing disease; discontinue esomeprazole and refer to specialist for evaluation. (5.5) Interaction with Clopidogrel: Avoid concomitant use of esomeprazole. (5.6) Hypomagnesemia: Reported rarely with prolonged treatment with PPIs. (5.7) Interaction with St. John’s Wort or Rifampin: Avoid concomitant use of esomeprazole. (5.8, 7.2) Interactions with Diagnostic Investigations for Neuroendocrine Tumors: Increased chromogranin A (CgA) levels may interfere with diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors; temporarily stop esomeprazole at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels. (5.9, 12.2) Interaction with Methotrexate: Concomitant use with PPIs may elevate and/or prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to toxicity. With high dose methotrexate administration, consider a temporary withdrawal of esomeprazole. (5.10, 7.3) 5.1 Presence of Gastric Malignancy In adults, symptomatic response to therapy with esomeprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. Consider additional follow-up and diagnostic testing in adult patients who have suboptimal response or an early symptomatic relapse after completing treatment with a PPI. In older patients also consider an endoscopy. 5.2 Acute Interstitial Nephritis Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including esomeprazole. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue esomeprazole if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.3 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like esomeprazole may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. 5.4 Bone Fracture Several published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 5.5 Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been reported in patients taking PPIs, including esomeprazole. These events have occurred as both new onset and an exacerbation of existing autoimmune disease. The majority of PPI-induced lupus erythematosus cases were CLE. The most common form of CLE reported in patients treated with PPIs was subacute CLE (SCLE) and occurred within weeks to years after continuous drug therapy in patients ranging from infants to the elderly. Generally, histological findings were observed without organ involvement. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is less commonly reported than CLE in patients receiving PPIs. PPI associated SLE is usually milder than non-drug induced SLE. Onset of SLE typically occurred within days to years after initiating treatment primarily in patients ranging from young adults to the elderly. The majority of patients presented with rash; however, arthralgia and cytopenia were also reported. Avoid administration of PPIs for longer than medically indicated. If signs or symptoms consistent with CLE or SLE are noted in patients receiving esomeprazole, discontinue the drug and refer the patient to the appropriate specialist for evaluation. Most patients improve with discontinuation of the PPI alone in 4 to 12 weeks. Serological testing (e.g., ANA) may be positive and elevated serological test results may take longer to resolve than clinical manifestations. 5.6 Interaction with Clopidogrel Avoid concomitant use of esomeprazole with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is entirely due to an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by use with concomitant medications, such as esomeprazole, that inhibit CYP2C19 activity. Concomitant use of clopidogrel with 40 mg esomeprazole reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel. When using esomeprazole consider alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Drug Interactions (7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 5.7 Hypomagnesemia Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI. For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 5.8 Interaction with St. John's Wort or Rifampin Drugs which induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St. John’s Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease esomeprazole concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Avoid concomitant use of esomeprazole with St. John’s Wort or rifampin. 5.9 Interactions with Diagnostic Investigations for Nuroendocrine Tumors Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop esomeprazole treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. 5.10 Interaction with Methotrexate Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7.3) ].

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE The minimum lethal dose of esomeprazole sodium in rats after bolus administration was 310 mg/kg (about 75 times the human dose on a body surface area basis). The major signs of acute toxicity were reduced motor activity, changes in respiratory frequency, tremor, ataxia and intermittent clonic convulsions. The symptoms described in connection with deliberate esomeprazole overdose (limited experience of doses in excess of 240 mg/day) are transient. Single oral doses of 80 mg and intravenous doses of 308 mg of esomeprazole over 24 hours were uneventful. Reports of overdosage with omeprazole in humans may also be relevant. Doses ranged up to 2,400 mg (120 times the usual recommended clinical dose). Manifestations were variable, but included confusion, drowsiness, blurred vision, tachycardia, nausea, diaphoresis, flushing, headache, dry mouth, and other adverse reactions similar to those seen in normal clinical experience (see omeprazole package insert - ADVERSE REACTIONS). No specific antidote for esomeprazole is known. Since esomeprazole is extensively protein bound, it is not expected to be removed by dialysis. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. As with the management of any overdose, the possibility of multiple drug ingestion should be considered. For current information on treatment of any drug overdose, a certified Regional Poison Control Center should be contacted. Telephone numbers are listed in the Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR) or local telephone book.

Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling: Acute Interstitial Nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Hypomagnesemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Most common adverse reactions (≥1%) are headache, flatulence, nausea, abdominal pain, injection site reaction, diarrhea, dry mouth, dizziness/vertigo, constipation and pruritus. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact AuroMedics Pharma LLC at 1-866-850-2876 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience with Intravenous Esomeprazole Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Adults The safety of intravenous esomeprazole is based on results from clinical trials conducted in four different populations including patients having symptomatic GERD with or without a history of erosive esophagitis (n=199), patients with erosive esophagitis (n=160), healthy subjects (n=204) and patients with bleeding gastric or duodenal ulcers (n=375). Symptomatic GERD and Erosive Esophagitis Trials The data described below reflect exposure to esomeprazole sodium for injection in 359 patients. Esomeprazole sodium for injection was studied only in actively-controlled trials. The population was 18 to 77 years of age; 45% Male, 52% Caucasian, 17% Black, 3% Asian, 28% Other, and had either erosive reflux esophagitis (44%) or GERD (56%). Most patients received doses of either 20 or 40 mg either as an infusion or an injection. Adverse reactions occurring in ≥1% of patients treated with intravenous esomeprazole (n=359) in clinical trials are listed below: Table 2: Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence ≥ 1% in the Esomeprazole Group % of patients Esomeprazole Intravenous (n=359) Adverse Reactions Headache 10.9 Flatulence 10.3 Nausea 6.4 Abdominal pain 5.8 Diarrhea 3.9 Mouth dry 3.9 Dizziness/vertigo 2.8 Constipation 2.5 Injection site reaction 1.7 Pruritus 1.1 Intravenous treatment with esomeprazole 20 and 40 mg-administered as an injection or as an infusion was found to have a safety profile similar to that of oral administration of esomeprazole. Pediatric A randomized, open-label, multi-national study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of repeated intravenous doses of once daily esomeprazole in pediatric patients 1 month to 17 years old, inclusive was performed. The safety results are consistent with the known safety profile of esomeprazole and no unexpected safety signals were identified [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Risk Reduction of Rebleeding of Gastric or Duodenal Ulcers in Adults The data described below reflect exposure to esomeprazole sodium for injection in 375 patients. Esomeprazole sodium for injection was studied in a placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive esomeprazole sodium for injection (n=375) or placebo (n=389). The population was 18 to 98 years old; 68% Male, 87% Caucasian, 1% Black, 7% Asian, 4% other, who presented with endoscopically confirmed gastric or duodenal ulcer bleeding. Following endoscopic hemostasis, patients received either 80 mg esomeprazole as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes followed by a continuous infusion of 8 mg per hour or placebo for a total treatment duration of 72 hours. After the initial 72-hour period, all patients received oral proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 27 days. Table 3: Incidence (%) of Adverse Reactions that Occurred in Greater than 1% of Patients within 72 Hours after Start of Treatment1 1. Incidence ≥1% in the esomeprazole group and greater than placebo group safety population 2. Injection site reactions included erythema, swelling, inflammation, pruritus, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis and superficial phlebitis. Number (%) of patients Esomeprazole (n=375) Placebo (n=389) Duodenal ulcer hemorrhage 16 (4.3%) 16 (4.1%) Injection site reaction 2 16 (4.3%) 2 (0.5%) Pyrexia 13 (3.5%) 11 (2.8%) Cough 4 (1.1%) 1 (0.3%) Dizziness 4 (1.1%) 3 (0.8%) With the exception of injection site reactions described above, intravenous treatment with esomeprazole administered as an injection or as an infusion was found to have a safety profile similar to that of oral administration of esomeprazole. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of esomeprazole. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Postmarketing Reports - There have been spontaneous reports of adverse events with postmarketing use of esomeprazole. These reports occurred rarely and are listed below by body system: Blood And Lymphatic System Disord ers: agranulocytosis, pancytopenia; Eye Disorders: blurred vision; Gastrointestinal Disorders: pancreatitis; stomatitis; microscopic colitis; Hepatobiliary Disorders: hepatic failure, hepatitis with or without jaundice; Immune System Disorders: anaphylactic reaction/shock; systemic lupus erythematosus; Infections and Infestations: GI candidiasis; Metabolism and nutritional disorders: hypomagnesemia with or without hypocalcemia and/or hypokalemia; Musculoskeletal And Connective Tissue Disorders: muscular weakness, myalgia, bone fracture; Nervous System Disorders : hepatic encephalopathy, taste disturbance; Psychiatric Disorders: aggression, agitation, depression, hallucination; Renal and Urinary Disorders : interstitial nephritis; Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: gynecomastia; Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: bronchospasm; Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: alopecia, erythema multiforme, hyperhidrosis, photosensitivity, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, some fatal), cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Other adverse events not observed with esomeprazole, but occurring with omeprazole can be found in the omeprazole package insert, ADVERSE REACTIONS section.

Recent major changes

Warnings and Precautions, Cutaneous and Systemic 10/2016 Lupus Erythematosus (5.5)

Mechanism

12.1 Mechanism of Action Esomeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cell. The S- and R-isomers of omeprazole are protonated and converted in the acidic compartment of the parietal cell forming the active inhibitor, the achiral sulphenamide. By acting specifically on the proton pump, esomeprazole blocks the final step in acid production, thus reducing gastric acidity. This effect is dose-related up to a daily dose of 20 to 40 mg and leads to inhibition of gastric acid secretion.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Esomeprazole sodium for injection is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to substituted benzimidazoles or to any component of the formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, acute interstitial nephritis, and urticaria [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Patients with known hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation or to substituted benzimidazoles (angioedema and anaphylaxis have occurred). (4)