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Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary LIPITOR is contraindicated for use in pregnant women since safety in pregnant women has not been established and there is no apparent benefit of lipid lowering drugs during pregnancy. Because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, LIPITOR may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. LIPITOR should be discontinued as soon as pregnancy is recognized [see Contraindications (4)]. Limited published data on the use of atorvastatin are insufficient to determine a drug-associated risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies in rats and rabbits there was no evidence of embryo-fetal toxicity or congenital malformations at doses up to 30 and 20 times, respectively, the human exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 80 mg, based on body surface area (mg/m2). In rats administered atorvastatin during gestation and lactation, decreased postnatal growth and development was observed at doses ≥ 6 times the MRHD (see Data). The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Data Human Data Limited published data on atorvastatin calcium from observational studies, meta-analyses and case reports have not shown an increased risk of major congenital malformations or miscarriage. Rare reports of congenital anomalies have been received following intrauterine exposure to other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. In a review of approximately 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to simvastatin or lovastatin, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed what would be expected in the general population. The number of cases is adequate to exclude a ≥3 to 4-fold increase in congenital anomalies over the background incidence. In 89% of the prospectively followed pregnancies, drug treatment was initiated prior to pregnancy and was discontinued at some point in the first trimester when pregnancy was identified. Animal Data Atorvastatin crosses the rat placenta and reaches a level in fetal liver equivalent to that of maternal plasma. Atorvastatin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at oral doses up to 300 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively. Atorvastatin was not teratogenic in rats at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day or in rabbits at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. These doses resulted in multiples of about 30 times (rat) or 20 times (rabbit) the human exposure at the MRHD based on surface area (mg/m2). In rats, the maternally toxic dose of 300 mg/kg resulted in increased post-implantation loss and decreased fetal body weight. At the maternally toxic doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day in rabbits, there was increased post-implantation loss, and at 100 mg/kg/day fetal body weights were decreased. In a study in pregnant rats administered 20, 100, or 225 mg/kg/day from gestation day 7 through to lactation day 20 (weaning), there was decreased survival at birth, postnatal day 4, weaning, and post-weaning in pups of mothers dosed with 225 mg/kg/day, a dose at which maternal toxicity was observed. Pup body weight was decreased through postnatal day 21 at 100 mg/kg/day, and through postnatal day 91 at 225 mg/kg/day. Pup development was delayed (rotorod performance at 100 mg/kg/day and acoustic startle at 225 mg/kg/day; pinnae detachment and eye-opening at 225 mg/kg/day). These doses correspond to 6 times (100 mg/kg) and 22 times (225 mg/kg) the human exposure at the MRHD, based on AUC.

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS The risk of myopathy during treatment with statins is increased with concurrent administration of fibric acid derivatives, lipid-modifying doses of niacin, cyclosporine, or strong CYP 3A4 inhibitors (e.g., clarithromycin, HIV protease inhibitors, and itraconazole) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Drug Interactions Associated with Increased Risk of Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis (2.6, 5.1, 7, 12.3) Interacting Agents Prescribing Recommendations Cyclosporine, HIV protease inhibitors (tipranavir plus ritonavir), hepatitis C protease inhibitor (telaprevir) Avoid atorvastatin HIV protease inhibitor (lopinavir plus ritonavir) Use with caution and lowest dose necessary Clarithromycin, itraconazole, HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir plus ritonavir) Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily HIV protease inhibitor (nelfinavir) Hepatitis C protease inhibitor (boceprevir) Do not exceed 40 mg atorvastatin daily Other Lipid-Lowering Medications: Use with fibrate products or lipid-modifying doses (≥1 g/day) of niacin increases the risk of adverse skeletal muscle effects. Caution should be used when prescribing with LIPITOR (7). Digoxin: Patients should be monitored appropriately (7.8). Oral Contraceptives: Values for norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol may be increased (7.9). Rifampin should be simultaneously co-administered with LIPITOR (7.7). 7.1 Strong Inhibitors of CYP 3A4 LIPITOR is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4. Concomitant administration of LIPITOR with strong inhibitors of CYP 3A4 can lead to increases in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. The extent of interaction and potentiation of effects depend on the variability of effect on CYP 3A4. Clarithromycin Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of LIPITOR 80 mg with clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) compared to that of LIPITOR alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking clarithromycin, caution should be used when the LIPITOR dose exceeds 20 mg [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Combination of Protease Inhibitors Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of LIPITOR with several combinations of HIV protease inhibitors, as well as with the hepatitis C protease inhibitor telaprevir, compared to that of LIPITOR alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking the HIV protease inhibitor tipranavir plus ritonavir, or the hepatitis C protease inhibitor telaprevir, concomitant use of LIPITOR should be avoided. In patients taking the HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir plus ritonavir, caution should be used when prescribing LIPITOR and the lowest dose necessary should be used. In patients taking the HIV protease inhibitors saquinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, or fosamprenavir plus ritonavir, the dose of LIPITOR should not exceed 20 mg and should be used with caution [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. In patients taking the HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir or the hepatitis C protease inhibitor boceprevir, the dose of LIPITOR should not exceed 40 mg and close clinical monitoring is recommended. Itraconazole Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of LIPITOR 40 mg and itraconazole 200 mg [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Therefore, in patients taking itraconazole, caution should be used when the LIPITOR dose exceeds 20 mg [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 7.2 Grapefruit Juice Contains one or more components that inhibit CYP 3A4 and can increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, especially with excessive grapefruit juice consumption (>1.2 liters per day). 7.3 Cyclosporine Atorvastatin and atorvastatin-metabolites are substrates of the OATP1B1 transporter. Inhibitors of the OATP1B1 (e.g., cyclosporine) can increase the bioavailability of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin AUC was significantly increased with concomitant administration of LIPITOR 10 mg and cyclosporine 5.2 mg/kg/day compared to that of LIPITOR alone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The co-administration of LIPITOR with cyclosporine should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 7.4 Gemfibrozil Due to an increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis when HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are co-administered with gemfibrozil, concomitant administration of LIPITOR with gemfibrozil should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 7.5 Other Fibrates Because it is known that the risk of myopathy during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is increased with concurrent administration of other fibrates, LIPITOR should be administered with caution when used concomitantly with other fibrates [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 7.6 Niacin The risk of skeletal muscle effects may be enhanced when LIPITOR is used in combination with niacin; a reduction in LIPITOR dosage should be considered in this setting [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 7.7 Rifampin or other Inducers of Cytochrome P450 3A4 Concomitant administration of LIPITOR with inducers of cytochrome P450 3A4 (e.g., efavirenz, rifampin) can lead to variable reductions in plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Due to the dual interaction mechanism of rifampin, simultaneous co-administration of LIPITOR with rifampin is recommended, as delayed administration of LIPITOR after administration of rifampin has been associated with a significant reduction in atorvastatin plasma concentrations. 7.8 Digoxin When multiple doses of LIPITOR and digoxin were co-administered, steady state plasma digoxin concentrations increased by approximately 20%. Patients taking digoxin should be monitored appropriately. 7.9 Oral Contraceptives Co-administration of LIPITOR and an oral contraceptive increased AUC values for norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. These increases should be considered when selecting an oral contraceptive for a woman taking LIPITOR. 7.10 Warfarin LIPITOR had no clinically significant effect on prothrombin time when administered to patients receiving chronic warfarin treatment. 7.11 Colchicine Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with atorvastatin co-administered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing atorvastatin with colchicine.

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Therapy with lipid-altering agents should be only one component of multiple risk factor intervention in individuals at significantly increased risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease due to hypercholesterolemia. Drug therapy is recommended as an adjunct to diet when the response to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol and other nonpharmacologic measures alone has been inadequate. In patients with CHD or multiple risk factors for CHD, LIPITOR can be started simultaneously with diet. LIPITOR is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor indicated as an adjunct therapy to diet to: Reduce the risk of MI, stroke, revascularization procedures, and angina in adult patients without CHD, but with multiple risk factors (1.1). Reduce the risk of MI and stroke in adult patients with type 2 diabetes without CHD, but with multiple risk factors (1.1). Reduce the risk of non-fatal MI, fatal and non-fatal stroke, revascularization procedures, hospitalization for CHF, and angina in adult patients with CHD (1.1). Reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG levels and increase HDL-C in adult patients with primary hyperlipidemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia (1.2). Reduce elevated TG in adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia and primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (1.2). Reduce total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) (1.2). Reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, and apo B levels in pediatric patients, 10 years to 17 years of age, with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) after failing an adequate trial of diet therapy (1.2). Limitations of Use: LIPITOR has not been studied in Fredrickson Types I and V dyslipidemias (1.3). 1.1 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults In adult patients without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as age, smoking, hypertension, low HDL-C, or a family history of early coronary heart disease, LIPITOR is indicated to: Reduce the risk of myocardial infarction Reduce the risk of stroke Reduce the risk for revascularization procedures and angina In adult patients with type 2 diabetes, and without clinically evident coronary heart disease, but with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease such as retinopathy, albuminuria, smoking, or hypertension, LIPITOR is indicated to: Reduce the risk of myocardial infarction Reduce the risk of stroke In adult patients with clinically evident coronary heart disease, LIPITOR is indicated to: Reduce the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction Reduce the risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke Reduce the risk for revascularization procedures Reduce the risk of hospitalization for CHF Reduce the risk of angina 1.2 Hyperlipidemia LIPITOR is indicated: As an adjunct to diet to reduce elevated total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG levels and to increase HDL-C in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb); As an adjunct to diet for the treatment of adult patients with elevated serum TG levels (Fredrickson Type IV); For the treatment of adult patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) who do not respond adequately to diet; To reduce total-C and LDL-C in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) as an adjunct to other lipid-lowering treatments (e.g., LDL apheresis) or if such treatments are unavailable; As an adjunct to diet to reduce total-C, LDL-C, and apo B levels in pediatric patients, 10 years to 17 years of age, with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present: LDL-C remains ≥ 190 mg/dL or LDL-C remains ≥ 160 mg/dL and: there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease or two or more other CVD risk factors are present in the pediatric patient 1.3 Limitations of Use LIPITOR has not been studied in conditions where the major lipoprotein abnormality is elevation of chylomicrons (Fredrickson Types I and V).

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease In the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT), the effect of LIPITOR on fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease was assessed in 10,305 hypertensive patients 40–80 years of age (mean of 63 years), without a previous myocardial infarction and with TC levels ≤251 mg/dL (6.5 mmol/L). Additionally, all patients had at least 3 of the following cardiovascular risk factors: male gender (81.1%), age >55 years (84.5%), smoking (33.2%), diabetes (24.3%), history of CHD in a first-degree relative (26%), TC:HDL >6 (14.3%), peripheral vascular disease (5.1%), left ventricular hypertrophy (14.4%), prior cerebrovascular event (9.8%), specific ECG abnormality (14.3%), proteinuria/albuminuria (62.4%). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were treated with anti-hypertensive therapy (Goal BP <140/90 mm Hg for non-diabetic patients; <130/80 mm Hg for diabetic patients) and allocated to either LIPITOR 10 mg daily (n=5168) or placebo (n=5137), using a covariate adaptive method which took into account the distribution of nine baseline characteristics of patients already enrolled and minimized the imbalance of those characteristics across the groups. Patients were followed for a median duration of 3.3 years. The effect of 10 mg/day of LIPITOR on lipid levels was similar to that seen in previous clinical trials. LIPITOR significantly reduced the rate of coronary events [either fatal coronary heart disease (46 events in the placebo group vs. 40 events in the LIPITOR group) or non-fatal MI (108 events in the placebo group vs. 60 events in the LIPITOR group)] with a relative risk reduction of 36% [(based on incidences of 1.9% for LIPITOR vs. 3.0% for placebo), p=0.0005 (see Figure 1)]. The risk reduction was consistent regardless of age, smoking status, obesity, or presence of renal dysfunction. The effect of LIPITOR was seen regardless of baseline LDL levels. Due to the small number of events, results for women were inconclusive. Figure 1: Effect of LIPITOR 10 mg/day on Cumulative Incidence of Non-Fatal Myocardial Infarction or Coronary Heart Disease Death (in ASCOT-LLA) LIPITOR also significantly decreased the relative risk for revascularization procedures by 42% (incidences of 1.4% for LIPITOR and 2.5% for placebo). Although the reduction of fatal and non-fatal strokes did not reach a pre-defined significance level (p=0.01), a favorable trend was observed with a 26% relative risk reduction (incidences of 1.7% for LIPITOR and 2.3% for placebo). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for death due to cardiovascular causes (p=0.51) or noncardiovascular causes (p=0.17). In the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), the effect of LIPITOR on cardiovascular disease (CVD) endpoints was assessed in 2838 subjects (94% white, 68% male), ages 40–75 with type 2 diabetes based on WHO criteria, without prior history of cardiovascular disease and with LDL ≤ 160 mg/dL and TG ≤ 600 mg/dL. In addition to diabetes, subjects had 1 or more of the following risk factors: current smoking (23%), hypertension (80%), retinopathy (30%), or microalbuminuria (9%) or macroalbuminuria (3%). No subjects on hemodialysis were enrolled in the study. In this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, subjects were randomly allocated to either LIPITOR 10 mg daily (1429) or placebo (1411) in a 1:1 ratio and were followed for a median duration of 3.9 years. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of any of the major cardiovascular events: myocardial infarction, acute CHD death, unstable angina, coronary revascularization, or stroke. The primary analysis was the time to first occurrence of the primary endpoint. Baseline characteristics of subjects were: mean age of 62 years, mean HbA1c 7.7%; median LDL-C 120 mg/dL; median TC 207 mg/dL; median TG 151 mg/dL; median HDL-C 52 mg/dL. The effect of LIPITOR 10 mg/day on lipid levels was similar to that seen in previous clinical trials. LIPITOR significantly reduced the rate of major cardiovascular events (primary endpoint events) (83 events in the LIPITOR group vs. 127 events in the placebo group) with a relative risk reduction of 37%, HR 0.63, 95% CI (0.48, 0.83) (p=0.001) (see Figure 2). An effect of LIPITOR was seen regardless of age, sex, or baseline lipid levels. LIPITOR significantly reduced the risk of stroke by 48% (21 events in the LIPITOR group vs. 39 events in the placebo group), HR 0.52, 95% CI (0.31, 0.89) (p=0.016) and reduced the risk of MI by 42% (38 events in the LIPITOR group vs. 64 events in the placebo group), HR 0.58, 95.1% CI (0.39, 0.86) (p=0.007). There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for angina, revascularization procedures, and acute CHD death. There were 61 deaths in the LIPITOR group vs. 82 deaths in the placebo group (HR 0.73, p=0.059). Figure 2: Effect of LIPITOR 10 mg/day on Time to Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Event (myocardial infarction, acute CHD death, unstable angina, coronary revascularization, or stroke) in CARDS In the Treating to New Targets Study (TNT), the effect of LIPITOR 80 mg/day vs. LIPITOR 10 mg/day on the reduction in cardiovascular events was assessed in 10,001 subjects (94% white, 81% male, 38% ≥65 years) with clinically evident coronary heart disease who had achieved a target LDL-C level <130 mg/dL after completing an 8-week, open-label, run-in period with LIPITOR 10 mg/day. Subjects were randomly assigned to either 10 mg/day or 80 mg/day of LIPITOR and followed for a median duration of 4.9 years. The primary endpoint was the time-to-first occurrence of any of the following major cardiovascular events (MCVE): death due to CHD, non-fatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and fatal and non-fatal stroke. The mean LDL-C, TC, TG, non-HDL, and HDL cholesterol levels at 12 weeks were 73, 145, 128, 98, and 47 mg/dL during treatment with 80 mg of LIPITOR and 99, 177, 152, 129, and 48 mg/dL during treatment with 10 mg of LIPITOR. Treatment with LIPITOR 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of MCVE (434 events in the 80 mg/day group vs. 548 events in the 10 mg/day group) with a relative risk reduction of 22%, HR 0.78, 95% CI (0.69, 0.89), p=0.0002 (see Figure 3 and Table 6). The overall risk reduction was consistent regardless of age (<65, ≥65) or gender. Figure 3: Effect of LIPITOR 80 mg/day vs. 10 mg/day on Time to Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events (TNT) TABLE 6. Overview of Efficacy Results in TNT Endpoint Atorvastatin 10 mg (N=5006) Atorvastatin 80 mg (N=4995) HRAtorvastatin 80 mg: atorvastatin 10 mg (95%CI) PRIMARY ENDPOINT n (%) n (%) HR=hazard ratio; CHD=coronary heart disease; CI=confidence interval; MI=myocardial infarction; CHF=congestive heart failure; CV=cardiovascular; PVD=peripheral vascular disease; CABG=coronary artery bypass graft Confidence intervals for the Secondary Endpoints were not adjusted for multiple comparisons First major cardiovascular endpoint 548 (10.9) 434 (8.7) 0.78 (0.69, 0.89) Components of the Primary Endpoint CHD death 127 (2.5) 101 (2.0) 0.80 (0.61, 1.03) Non-fatal, non-procedure related MI 308 (6.2) 243 (4.9) 0.78 (0.66, 0.93) Resuscitated cardiac arrest 26 (0.5) 25 (0.5) 0.96 (0.56, 1.67) Stroke (fatal and non-fatal) 155 (3.1) 117 (2.3) 0.75 (0.59, 0.96) SECONDARY ENDPOINTSSecondary endpoints not included in primary endpoint First CHF with hospitalization 164 (3.3) 122 (2.4) 0.74 (0.59, 0.94) First PVD endpoint 282 (5.6) 275 (5.5) 0.97 (0.83, 1.15) First CABG or other coronary revascularization procedureComponent of other secondary endpoints 904 (18.1) 667 (13.4) 0.72 (0.65, 0.80) First documented angina endpoint 615 (12.3) 545 (10.9) 0.88 (0.79, 0.99) All-cause mortality 282 (5.6) 284 (5.7) 1.01 (0.85, 1.19) Components of All-Cause Mortality Cardiovascular death 155 (3.1) 126 (2.5) 0.81 (0.64, 1.03) Noncardiovascular death 127 (2.5) 158 (3.2) 1.25 (0.99, 1.57) Cancer death 75 (1.5) 85 (1.7) 1.13 (0.83, 1.55) Other non-CV death 43 (0.9) 58 (1.2) 1.35 (0.91, 2.00) Suicide, homicide, and other traumatic non-CV death 9 (0.2) 15 (0.3) 1.67 (0.73, 3.82) Of the events that comprised the primary efficacy endpoint, treatment with LIPITOR 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of non-fatal, non-procedure related MI and fatal and non-fatal stroke, but not CHD death or resuscitated cardiac arrest (Table 6). Of the predefined secondary endpoints, treatment with LIPITOR 80 mg/day significantly reduced the rate of coronary revascularization, angina, and hospitalization for heart failure, but not peripheral vascular disease. The reduction in the rate of CHF with hospitalization was only observed in the 8% of patients with a prior history of CHF. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality (Table 6). The proportions of subjects who experienced cardiovascular death, including the components of CHD death and fatal stroke, were numerically smaller in the LIPITOR 80 mg group than in the LIPITOR 10 mg treatment group. The proportions of subjects who experienced noncardiovascular death were numerically larger in the LIPITOR 80 mg group than in the LIPITOR 10 mg treatment group. In the Incremental Decrease in Endpoints Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Study (IDEAL), treatment with LIPITOR 80 mg/day was compared to treatment with simvastatin 20–40 mg/day in 8,888 subjects up to 80 years of age with a history of CHD to assess whether reduction in CV risk could be achieved. Patients were mainly male (81%), white (99%) with an average age of 61.7 years, and an average LDL-C of 121.5 mg/dL at randomization; 76% were on statin therapy. In this prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial with no run-in period, subjects were followed for a median duration of 4.8 years. The mean LDL-C, TC, TG, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol levels at Week 12 were 78, 145, 115, 45, and 100 mg/dL during treatment with 80 mg of LIPITOR and 105, 179, 142, 47, and 132 mg/dL during treatment with 20–40 mg of simvastatin. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups for the primary endpoint, the rate of first major coronary event (fatal CHD, non-fatal MI, and resuscitated cardiac arrest): 411 (9.3%) in the LIPITOR 80 mg/day group vs. 463 (10.4%) in the simvastatin 20–40 mg/day group, HR 0.89, 95% CI ( 0.78, 1.01), p=0.07. There were no significant differences between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality: 366 (8.2%) in the LIPITOR 80 mg/day group vs. 374 (8.4%) in the simvastatin 20–40 mg/day group. The proportions of subjects who experienced CV or non-CV death were similar for the LIPITOR 80 mg group and the simvastatin 20–40 mg group. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 14.2 Hyperlipidemia and Mixed Dyslipidemia LIPITOR reduces total-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apo B, and TG, and increases HDL-C in patients with hyperlipidemia (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) and mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb). Therapeutic response is seen within 2 weeks, and maximum response is usually achieved within 4 weeks and maintained during chronic therapy. LIPITOR is effective in a wide variety of patient populations with hyperlipidemia, with and without hypertriglyceridemia, in men and women, and in the elderly. In two multicenter, placebo-controlled, dose-response studies in patients with hyperlipidemia, LIPITOR given as a single dose over 6 weeks, significantly reduced total-C, LDL-C, apo B, and TG. (Pooled results are provided in Table 7.) TABLE 7. Dose Response in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia (Adjusted Mean % Change From Baseline)Results are pooled from 2 dose-response studies. Dose N TC LDL-C Apo B TG HDL-C Non-HDL-C/ HDL-C Placebo 21 4 4 3 10 -3 7 10 22 -29 -39 -32 -19 6 -34 20 20 -33 -43 -35 -26 9 -41 40 21 -37 -50 -42 -29 6 -45 80 23 -45 -60 -50 -37 5 -53 In patients with Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb hyperlipoproteinemia pooled from 24 controlled trials, the median (25th and 75th percentile) percent changes from baseline in HDL-C for LIPITOR 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg were 6.4 (-1.4, 14), 8.7 (0, 17), 7.8 (0, 16), and 5.1 (-2.7, 15), respectively. Additionally, analysis of the pooled data demonstrated consistent and significant decreases in total-C, LDL-C, TG, total-C/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C. In three multicenter, double-blind studies in patients with hyperlipidemia, LIPITOR was compared to other statins. After randomization, patients were treated for 16 weeks with either LIPITOR 10 mg per day or a fixed dose of the comparative agent (Table 8). TABLE 8. Mean Percentage Change From Baseline at Endpoint (Double-Blind, Randomized, Active-Controlled Trials) Treatment (Daily Dose) N Total-C LDL-C Apo B TG HDL-C Non-HDL-C/ HDL-C Study 1 LIPITOR 10 mg 707 -27Significantly different from lovastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤0.05 -36 -28 -17 +7 -37 Lovastatin 20 mg 191 -19 -27 -20 -6 +7 -28 95% CI for DiffA negative value for the 95% CI for the difference between treatments favors LIPITOR for all except HDL-C, for which a positive value favors LIPITOR. If the range does not include 0, this indicates a statistically significant difference. -9.2, -6.5 -10.7, -7.1 -10.0, -6.5 -15.2, -7.1 -1.7, 2.0 -11.1, -7.1 Study 2 LIPITOR 10 mg 222 -25Significantly different from pravastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤0.05 -35 -27 -17 +6 -36 Pravastatin 20 mg 77 -17 -23 -17 -9 +8 -28 95% CI for Diff -10.8, -6.1 -14.5, -8.2 -13.4, -7.4 -14.1, -0.7 -4.9, 1.6 -11.5, -4.1 Study 3 LIPITOR 10 mg 132 -29Significantly different from simvastatin, ANCOVA, p ≤0.05 -37 -34 -23 +7 -39 Simvastatin 10 mg 45 -24 -30 -30 -15 +7 -33 95% CI for Diff -8.7, -2.7 -10.1, -2.6 -8.0, -1.1 -15.1, -0.7 -4.3, 3.9 -9.6, -1.9 The impact on clinical outcomes of the differences in lipid-altering effects between treatments shown in Table 8 is not known. Table 8 does not contain data comparing the effects of LIPITOR 10 mg and higher doses of lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin. The drugs compared in the studies summarized in the table are not necessarily interchangeable. 14.3 Hypertriglyceridemia The response to LIPITOR in 64 patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson Type IV) treated across several clinical trials is shown in the table below (Table 9). For the LIPITOR-treated patients, median (min, max) baseline TG level was 565 (267–1502). TABLE 9. Combined Patients With Isolated Elevated TG: Median (min, max) Percentage Change From Baseline Placebo (N=12) LIPITOR 10 mg (N=37) LIPITOR 20 mg (N=13) LIPITOR 80 mg (N=14) Triglycerides -12.4 (-36.6, 82.7) -41.0 (-76.2, 49.4) -38.7 (-62.7, 29.5) -51.8 (-82.8, 41.3) Total-C -2.3 (-15.5, 24.4) -28.2 (-44.9, -6.8) -34.9 (-49.6, -15.2) -44.4 (-63.5, -3.8) LDL-C 3.6 (-31.3, 31.6) -26.5 (-57.7, 9.8) -30.4 (-53.9, 0.3) -40.5 (-60.6, -13.8) HDL-C 3.8 (-18.6, 13.4) 13.8 (-9.7, 61.5) 11.0 (-3.2, 25.2) 7.5 (-10.8, 37.2) VLDL-C -1.0 (-31.9, 53.2) -48.8 (-85.8, 57.3) -44.6 (-62.2, -10.8) -62.0 (-88.2, 37.6) non-HDL-C -2.8 (-17.6, 30.0) -33.0 (-52.1, -13.3) -42.7 (-53.7, -17.4) -51.5 (-72.9, -4.3) 14.4 Dysbetalipoproteinemia The results of an open-label crossover study of 16 patients (genotypes: 14 apo E2/E2 and 2 apo E3/E2) with dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) are shown in the table below (Table 10). TABLE 10. Open-Label Crossover Study of 16 Patients With Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Fredrickson Type III) Median % Change (min, max) Median (min, max) at Baseline (mg/dL) LIPITOR 10 mg LIPITOR 80 mg Total-C 442 (225, 1320) -37 (-85, 17) -58 (-90, -31) Triglycerides 678 (273, 5990) -39 (-92, -8) -53 (-95, -30) IDL-C + VLDL-C 215 (111, 613) -32 (-76, 9) -63 (-90, -8) non-HDL-C 411 (218, 1272) -43 (-87, -19) -64 (-92, -36) 14.5 Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia In a study without a concurrent control group, 29 patients ages 6 years to 37 years with HoFH received maximum daily doses of 20 to 80 mg of LIPITOR. The mean LDL-C reduction in this study was 18%. Twenty-five patients with a reduction in LDL-C had a mean response of 20% (range of 7% to 53%, median of 24%); the remaining 4 patients had 7% to 24% increases in LDL-C. Five of the 29 patients had absent LDL-receptor function. Of these, 2 patients also had a portacaval shunt and had no significant reduction in LDL-C. The remaining 3 receptor-negative patients had a mean LDL-C reduction of 22%. 14.6 Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Pediatric Patients In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study followed by an open-label phase, 187 boys and post-menarchal girls 10 years to 17 years of age (mean age 14.1 years) with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) or severe hypercholesterolemia, were randomized to LIPITOR (n=140) or placebo (n=47) for 26 weeks and then all received LIPITOR for 26 weeks. Inclusion in the study required 1) a baseline LDL-C level ≥ 190 mg/dL or 2) a baseline LDL-C level ≥ 160 mg/dL and positive family history of FH or documented premature cardiovascular disease in a first or second-degree relative. The mean baseline LDL-C value was 218.6 mg/dL (range: 138.5–385.0 mg/dL) in the LIPITOR group compared to 230.0 mg/dL (range: 160.0–324.5 mg/dL) in the placebo group. The dosage of LIPITOR (once daily) was 10 mg for the first 4 weeks and uptitrated to 20 mg if the LDL-C level was > 130 mg/dL. The number of LIPITOR-treated patients who required uptitration to 20 mg after Week 4 during the double-blind phase was 78 (55.7%). LIPITOR significantly decreased plasma levels of total-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B during the 26-week double-blind phase (see Table 11). TABLE 11. Lipid-altering Effects of LIPITOR in Adolescent Boys and Girls with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia or Severe Hypercholesterolemia (Mean Percentage Change From Baseline at Endpoint in Intention-to-Treat Population) DOSAGE N Total-C LDL-C HDL-C TG Apolipoprotein B Placebo 47 -1.5 -0.4 -1.9 1.0 0.7 LIPITOR 140 -31.4 -39.6 2.8 -12.0 -34.0 The mean achieved LDL-C value was 130.7 mg/dL (range: 70.0–242.0 mg/dL) in the LIPITOR group compared to 228.5 mg/dL (range: 152.0–385.0 mg/dL) in the placebo group during the 26-week double-blind phase. Atorvastatin was also studied in a three year open-label, uncontrolled trial that included 163 patients with HeFH who were 10 years to 15 years old (82 boys and 81 girls). All patients had a clinical diagnosis of HeFH confirmed by genetic analysis (if not already confirmed by family history). Approximately 98% were Caucasian, and less than 1% were Black or Asian. Mean LDL-C at baseline was 232 mg/dL. The starting atorvastatin dosage was 10 mg once daily and doses were adjusted to achieve a target of < 130 mg/dL LDL-C. The reductions in LDL-C from baseline were generally consistent across age groups within the trial as well as with previous clinical studies in both adult and pediatric placebo-controlled trials. The long-term efficacy of LIPITOR therapy in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established.

Warnings And Cautions

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Skeletal muscle effects (e.g., myopathy and rhabdomyolysis): Risks increase when higher doses are used concomitantly with cyclosporine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., clarithromycin, itraconazole, HIV protease inhibitors). Predisposing factors include advanced age (> 65), uncontrolled hypothyroidism, and renal impairment. Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported. Advise patients to promptly report to their physician unexplained and/or persistent muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. LIPITOR therapy should be discontinued if myopathy is diagnosed or suspected (5.1, 8.5). Liver enzyme abnormalities: Persistent elevations in hepatic transaminases can occur. Check liver enzyme tests before initiating therapy and as clinically indicated thereafter (5.2). A higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was seen in patients without CHD but with stroke or TIA within the previous 6 months in the LIPITOR 80 mg group vs. placebo (5.5). 5.1 Skeletal Muscle Rare cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with LIPITOR and with other drugs in this class. A history of renal impairment may be a risk factor for the development of rhabdomyolysis. Such patients merit closer monitoring for skeletal muscle effects. Atorvastatin, like other statins, occasionally causes myopathy, defined as muscle aches or muscle weakness in conjunction with increases in creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values >10 times ULN. The concomitant use of higher doses of atorvastatin with certain drugs such as cyclosporine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., clarithromycin, itraconazole, and HIV protease inhibitors) increases the risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis. There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation; improvement with immunosuppressive agents. Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevation of CPK. Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing LIPITOR. LIPITOR therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. The risk of myopathy during treatment with drugs in this class is increased with concurrent administration of cyclosporine, fibric acid derivatives, erythromycin, clarithromycin, the hepatitis C protease inhibitor telaprevir, combinations of HIV protease inhibitors, including saquinavir plus ritonavir, lopinavir plus ritonavir, tipranavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, and fosamprenavir plus ritonavir, niacin, or azole antifungals. Physicians considering combined therapy with LIPITOR and fibric acid derivatives, erythromycin, clarithromycin, a combination of saquinavir plus ritonavir, lopinavir plus ritonavir, darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, or fosamprenavir plus ritonavir, azole antifungals, or lipid-modifying doses of niacin should carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks and should carefully monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during the initial months of therapy and during any periods of upward dosage titration of either drug. Lower starting and maintenance doses of atorvastatin should be considered when taken concomitantly with the aforementioned drugs [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Periodic creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations may be considered in such situations, but there is no assurance that such monitoring will prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy. Prescribing recommendations for interacting agents are summarized in Table 2 [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Drug Interactions (7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Table 2. Drug Interactions Associated with Increased Risk of Myopathy/Rhabdomyolysis Interacting Agents Prescribing Recommendations Cyclosporine, HIV protease inhibitors (tipranavir plus ritonavir), hepatitis C protease inhibitor (telaprevir) Avoid atorvastatin HIV protease inhibitor (lopinavir plus ritonavir) Use with caution and lowest dose necessary Clarithromycin, itraconazole, HIV protease inhibitors (saquinavir plus ritonavirUse with caution and with the lowest dose necessary (12.3), darunavir plus ritonavir, fosamprenavir, fosamprenavir plus ritonavir) Do not exceed 20 mg atorvastatin daily HIV protease inhibitor (nelfinavir) Hepatitis C protease inhibitor (boceprevir) Do not exceed 40 mg atorvastatin daily Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with atorvastatin co-administered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing atorvastatin with colchicine [see Drug Interactions (7.11)]. LIPITOR therapy should be temporarily withheld or discontinued in any patient with an acute, serious condition suggestive of a myopathy or having a risk factor predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (e.g., severe acute infection, hypotension, major surgery, trauma, severe metabolic, endocrine and electrolyte disorders, and uncontrolled seizures). 5.2 Liver Dysfunction Statins, like some other lipid-lowering therapies, have been associated with biochemical abnormalities of liver function. Persistent elevations (>3 times the upper limit of normal [ULN] occurring on 2 or more occasions) in serum transaminases occurred in 0.7% of patients who received LIPITOR in clinical trials. The incidence of these abnormalities was 0.2%, 0.2%, 0.6%, and 2.3% for 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg, respectively. One patient in clinical trials developed jaundice. Increases in liver function tests (LFT) in other patients were not associated with jaundice or other clinical signs or symptoms. Upon dose reduction, drug interruption, or discontinuation, transaminase levels returned to or near pretreatment levels without sequelae. Eighteen of 30 patients with persistent LFT elevations continued treatment with a reduced dose of LIPITOR. It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be obtained prior to initiating therapy with LIPITOR and repeated as clinically indicated. There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including atorvastatin. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with LIPITOR, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found, do not restart LIPITOR. LIPITOR should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of liver disease. Active liver disease or unexplained persistent transaminase elevations are contraindications to the use of LIPITOR [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.3 Endocrine Function Increases in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose levels have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including LIPITOR. Statins interfere with cholesterol synthesis and theoretically might blunt adrenal and/or gonadal steroid production. Clinical studies have shown that LIPITOR does not reduce basal plasma cortisol concentration or impair adrenal reserve. The effects of statins on male fertility have not been studied in adequate numbers of patients. The effects, if any, on the pituitary-gonadal axis in premenopausal women are unknown. Caution should be exercised if a statin is administered concomitantly with drugs that may decrease the levels or activity of endogenous steroid hormones, such as ketoconazole, spironolactone, and cimetidine. 5.4 CNS Toxicity Brain hemorrhage was seen in a female dog treated for 3 months at 120 mg/kg/day. Brain hemorrhage and optic nerve vacuolation were seen in another female dog that was sacrificed in moribund condition after 11 weeks of escalating doses up to 280 mg/kg/day. The 120 mg/kg dose resulted in a systemic exposure approximately 16 times the human plasma area-under-the-curve (AUC, 0–24 hours) based on the maximum human dose of 80 mg/day. A single tonic convulsion was seen in each of 2 male dogs (one treated at 10 mg/kg/day and one at 120 mg/kg/day) in a 2-year study. No CNS lesions have been observed in mice after chronic treatment for up to 2 years at doses up to 400 mg/kg/day or in rats at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. These doses were 6 to 11 times (mouse) and 8 to 16 times (rat) the human AUC (0–24) based on the maximum recommended human dose of 80 mg/day. CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhages, edema, and mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, have been observed in dogs treated with other members of this class. A chemically similar drug in this class produced optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in clinically normal dogs in a dose-dependent fashion at a dose that produced plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose. 5.5 Use in Patients with Recent Stroke or TIA In a post-hoc analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) study where LIPITOR 80 mg vs. placebo was administered in 4,731 subjects without CHD who had a stroke or TIA within the preceding 6 months, a higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was seen in the LIPITOR 80 mg group compared to placebo (55, 2.3% atorvastatin vs. 33, 1.4% placebo; HR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.59; p=0.0168). The incidence of fatal hemorrhagic stroke was similar across treatment groups (17 vs. 18 for the atorvastatin and placebo groups, respectively). The incidence of nonfatal hemorrhagic stroke was significantly higher in the atorvastatin group (38, 1.6%) as compared to the placebo group (16, 0.7%). Some baseline characteristics, including hemorrhagic and lacunar stroke on study entry, were associated with a higher incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the atorvastatin group [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE There is no specific treatment for LIPITOR overdosage. In the event of an overdose, the patient should be treated symptomatically, and supportive measures instituted as required. Due to extensive drug binding to plasma proteins, hemodialysis is not expected to significantly enhance LIPITOR clearance.

Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label: Rhabdomyolysis and myopathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Liver enzyme abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] The most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 2%) in patients treated with LIPITOR in placebo-controlled trials regardless of causality were: nasopharyngitis, arthralgia, diarrhea, pain in extremity, and urinary tract infection (6.1). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Pfizer at (1-800-438-1985 and www.pfizer.com) or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. In the LIPITOR placebo-controlled clinical trial database of 16,066 patients (8755 LIPITOR vs. 7311 placebo; age range 10–93 years, 39% women, 91% Caucasians, 3% Blacks, 2% Asians, 4% other) with a median treatment duration of 53 weeks, 9.7% of patients on LIPITOR and 9.5% of the patients on placebo discontinued due to adverse reactions regardless of causality. The five most common adverse reactions in patients treated with LIPITOR that led to treatment discontinuation and occurred at a rate greater than placebo were: myalgia (0.7%), diarrhea (0.5%), nausea (0.4%), alanine aminotransferase increase (0.4%), and hepatic enzyme increase (0.4%). The most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 2% and greater than placebo) regardless of causality, in patients treated with LIPITOR in placebo controlled trials (n=8755) were: nasopharyngitis (8.3%), arthralgia (6.9%), diarrhea (6.8%), pain in extremity (6.0%), and urinary tract infection (5.7%). Table 3 summarizes the frequency of clinical adverse reactions, regardless of causality, reported in ≥ 2% and at a rate greater than placebo in patients treated with LIPITOR (n=8755), from seventeen placebo-controlled trials. Table 3. Clinical adverse reactions occurring in ≥ 2% in patients treated with any dose of LIPITOR and at an incidence greater than placebo regardless of causality (% of patients). Adverse ReactionAdverse Reaction ≥ 2% in any dose greater than placebo Any dose N=8755 10 mg N=3908 20 mg N=188 40 mg N=604 80 mg N=4055 Placebo N=7311 Nasopharyngitis 8.3 12.9 5.3 7.0 4.2 8.2 Arthralgia 6.9 8.9 11.7 10.6 4.3 6.5 Diarrhea 6.8 7.3 6.4 14.1 5.2 6.3 Pain in extremity 6.0 8.5 3.7 9.3 3.1 5.9 Urinary tract infection 5.7 6.9 6.4 8.0 4.1 5.6 Dyspepsia 4.7 5.9 3.2 6.0 3.3 4.3 Nausea 4.0 3.7 3.7 7.1 3.8 3.5 Musculoskeletal pain 3.8 5.2 3.2 5.1 2.3 3.6 Muscle Spasms 3.6 4.6 4.8 5.1 2.4 3.0 Myalgia 3.5 3.6 5.9 8.4 2.7 3.1 Insomnia 3.0 2.8 1.1 5.3 2.8 2.9 Pharyngolaryngeal pain 2.3 3.9 1.6 2.8 0.7 2.1 Other adverse reactions reported in placebo-controlled studies include: Body as a whole: malaise, pyrexia; Digestive system: abdominal discomfort, eructation, flatulence, hepatitis, cholestasis; Musculoskeletal system: musculoskeletal pain, muscle fatigue, neck pain, joint swelling; Metabolic and nutritional system: transaminases increase, liver function test abnormal, blood alkaline phosphatase increase, creatine phosphokinase increase, hyperglycemia; Nervous system: nightmare; Respiratory system: epistaxis; Skin and appendages: urticaria; Special senses: vision blurred, tinnitus; Urogenital system: white blood cells urine positive. Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT) In ASCOT [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] involving 10,305 participants (age range 40–80 years, 19% women; 94.6% Caucasians, 2.6% Africans, 1.5% South Asians, 1.3% mixed/other) treated with LIPITOR 10 mg daily (n=5,168) or placebo (n=5,137), the safety and tolerability profile of the group treated with LIPITOR was comparable to that of the group treated with placebo during a median of 3.3 years of follow-up. Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) In CARDS [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] involving 2,838 subjects (age range 39–77 years, 32% women; 94.3% Caucasians, 2.4% South Asians, 2.3% Afro-Caribbean, 1.0% other) with type 2 diabetes treated with LIPITOR 10 mg daily (n=1,428) or placebo (n=1,410), there was no difference in the overall frequency of adverse reactions or serious adverse reactions between the treatment groups during a median follow-up of 3.9 years. No cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported. Treating to New Targets Study (TNT) In TNT [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] involving 10,001 subjects (age range 29–78 years, 19% women; 94.1% Caucasians, 2.9% Blacks, 1.0% Asians, 2.0% other) with clinically evident CHD treated with LIPITOR 10 mg daily (n=5006) or LIPITOR 80 mg daily (n=4995), there were more serious adverse reactions and discontinuations due to adverse reactions in the high-dose atorvastatin group (92, 1.8%; 497, 9.9%, respectively) as compared to the low-dose group (69, 1.4%; 404, 8.1%, respectively) during a median follow-up of 4.9 years. Persistent transaminase elevations (≥3 × ULN twice within 4–10 days) occurred in 62 (1.3%) individuals with atorvastatin 80 mg and in nine (0.2%) individuals with atorvastatin 10 mg. Elevations of CK (≥ 10 × ULN) were low overall, but were higher in the high-dose atorvastatin treatment group (13, 0.3%) compared to the low-dose atorvastatin group (6, 0.1%). Incremental Decrease in Endpoints through Aggressive Lipid Lowering Study (IDEAL) In IDEAL [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] involving 8,888 subjects (age range 26–80 years, 19% women; 99.3% Caucasians, 0.4% Asians, 0.3% Blacks, 0.04% other) treated with LIPITOR 80 mg/day (n=4439) or simvastatin 20–40 mg daily (n=4449), there was no difference in the overall frequency of adverse reactions or serious adverse reactions between the treatment groups during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) In SPARCL involving 4731 subjects (age range 21–92 years, 40% women; 93.3% Caucasians, 3.0% Blacks, 0.6% Asians, 3.1% other) without clinically evident CHD but with a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within the previous 6 months treated with LIPITOR 80 mg (n=2365) or placebo (n=2366) for a median follow-up of 4.9 years, there was a higher incidence of persistent hepatic transaminase elevations (≥ 3 × ULN twice within 4–10 days) in the atorvastatin group (0.9%) compared to placebo (0.1%). Elevations of CK (>10 × ULN) were rare, but were higher in the atorvastatin group (0.1%) compared to placebo (0.0%). Diabetes was reported as an adverse reaction in 144 subjects (6.1%) in the atorvastatin group and 89 subjects (3.8%) in the placebo group [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. In a post-hoc analysis, LIPITOR 80 mg reduced the incidence of ischemic stroke (218/2365, 9.2% vs. 274/2366, 11.6%) and increased the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke (55/2365, 2.3% vs. 33/2366, 1.4%) compared to placebo. The incidence of fatal hemorrhagic stroke was similar between groups (17 LIPITOR vs. 18 placebo). The incidence of non-fatal hemorrhagic strokes was significantly greater in the atorvastatin group (38 non-fatal hemorrhagic strokes) as compared to the placebo group (16 non-fatal hemorrhagic strokes). Subjects who entered the study with a hemorrhagic stroke appeared to be at increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke [7 (16%) LIPITOR vs. 2 (4%) placebo]. There were no significant differences between the treatment groups for all-cause mortality: 216 (9.1%) in the LIPITOR 80 mg/day group vs. 211 (8.9%) in the placebo group. The proportions of subjects who experienced cardiovascular death were numerically smaller in the LIPITOR 80 mg group (3.3%) than in the placebo group (4.1%). The proportions of subjects who experienced non-cardiovascular death were numerically larger in the LIPITOR 80 mg group (5.0%) than in the placebo group (4.0%). Adverse Reactions from Clinical Studies of LIPITOR in Pediatric Patients In a 26-week controlled study in boys and postmenarchal girls with HeFH (ages 10 years to 17 years) (n=140, 31% female; 92% Caucasians, 1.6% Blacks, 1.6% Asians, 4.8% other), the safety and tolerability profile of LIPITOR 10 to 20 mg daily, as an adjunct to diet to reduce total cholesterol, LDL-C, and apo B levels, was generally similar to that of placebo [see Use in Special Populations (8.4) and Clinical Studies (14.6)]. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of LIPITOR. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Adverse reactions associated with LIPITOR therapy reported since market introduction, that are not listed above, regardless of causality assessment, include the following: anaphylaxis, angioneurotic edema, bullous rashes (including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis), rhabdomyolysis, myositis, fatigue, tendon rupture, fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure, dizziness, depression, peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis and interstitial lung disease. There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory impairment, confusion) associated with statin use. These cognitive issues have been reported for all statins. The reports are generally nonserious, and reversible upon statin discontinuation, with variable times to symptom onset (1 day to years) and symptom resolution (median of 3 weeks).

Mechanism

12.1 Mechanism of Action LIPITOR is a selective, competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme that converts 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols, including cholesterol. In animal models, LIPITOR lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol synthesis in the liver and by increasing the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell surface to enhance uptake and catabolism of LDL; LIPITOR also reduces LDL production and the number of LDL particles.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Active Liver Disease, Which May Include Unexplained Persistent Elevations in Hepatic Transaminase Levels Hypersensitivity to Any Component of This Medication Pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Lactation [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)]. Active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase levels (4). Hypersensitivity to any component of this medication (4). Pregnancy (4, 8.1, 8.3). Lactation (4, 8.2).