LABETALOL HCL

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Dosage and administration

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Labetalol hydrochloride injection is intended for intravenous use in hospitalized patients. DOSAGE MUST BE INDIVIDUALIZED depending upon the severity of hypertension and the response of the patient during dosing. Patients should always be kept in a supine position during the period of intravenous drug administration. A substantial fall in blood pressure on standing should be expected in these patients. The patient's ability to tolerate an upright position should be established before permitting any ambulation, such as using toilet facilities. Either of two methods of administration of labetalol hydrochloride injection may be used: a) repeated intravenous injections, b) slow continuous infusion. Repeated Intravenous Injection Initially, labetalol hydrochloride injection should be given in a dose of 20 mg labetalol HCl (which corresponds to 0.25 mg/kg for an 80 kg patient) by slow intravenous injection over a 2-minute period. Immediately before the injection and at 5 and 10 minutes after injection, supine blood pressure should be measured to evaluate response. Additional injections of 40 mg or 80 mg can be given at 10 minute intervals until a desired supine blood pressure is achieved or a total of 300 mg labetalol HCl has been injected. The maximum effect usually occurs within 5 minutes of each injection. Slow Continuous Infusion Labetalol hydrochloride injection is prepared for continuous intravenous infusion by diluting the contents with commonly used intravenous fluids (see below). Examples of methods of preparing the infusion solution are: The contents of either two 20 mL vials (40 mL), or one 40 mL vial, are added to 160 mL of a commonly used intravenous fluid such that the resultant 200 mL of solution contains 200 mg of labetalol hydrochloride, 1 mg/mL. The diluted solution should be administered at a rate of 2 mL/min to deliver 2 mg/min. Alternatively, the contents of either two 20 mL vials (40 mL), or one 40 mL vial, of labetalol hydrochloride injection are added to 250 mL of a commonly used intravenous fluid. The resultant solution will contain 200 mg of labetalol hydrochloride, approximately 2 mg/3 mL. The diluted solution should be administered at a rate of 3 mL/min to deliver approximately 2 mg/min. The rate of infusion of the diluted solution may be adjusted according to the blood pressure response, at the discretion of the physician. To facilitate a desired rate of infusion, the diluted solution can be infused using a controlled administration mechanism, e.g., graduated burette or mechanically driven infusion pump. Since the half-life of labetalol is 5 to 8 hours, steady-state blood levels (in the face of a constant rate of infusion) would not be reached during the usual infusion time period. The infusion should be continued until a satisfactory response is obtained and should then be stopped and oral labetalol hydrochloride started. The effective intravenous dose is usually in the range of 50 to 200 mg. A total dose of up to 300 mg may be required in some patients. Blood Pressure Monitoring The blood pressure should be monitored during and after completion of the infusion or intravenous injections. Rapid or excessive falls in either systolic or diastolic blood pressure during intravenous treatment should be avoided. In patients with excessive systolic hypertension, the decrease in systolic pressure should be used as indicator of effectiveness in addition to the response of the diastolic pressure. Initiation of Dosing with Labetalol Hydrochloride Tablets Subsequent oral dosing with labetalol hydrochloride tablets should begin when it has been established that the supine diastolic blood pressure has begun to rise. The recommended initial dose is 200 mg, followed in 6 to 12 hours by an additional dose of 200 or 400 mg, depending on the blood pressure response. Thereafter, inpatient titration with labetalol hydrochloride tablets may proceed as follows: Inpatient Titration Instructions Regimen Daily Dose If needed, the total daily dose may be given in three divided doses. 200 mg b.i.d. 400 mg 400 mg b.i.d. 800 mg 800 mg b.i.d. 1600 mg 1200 mg b.i.d. 2400 mg While in the hospital, the dosage of labetalol hydrochloride tablets may be increased at 1 day intervals to achieve the desired blood pressure reduction. For subsequent outpatient titration or maintenance dosing see Labetalol Hydrochloride Tablets Product Information DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for additional recommendations. Compatibility with commonly used intravenous fluids Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Labetalol hydrochloride injection was tested for compatibility with commonly used intravenous fluids at final concentrations of 1.25 mg to 3.75 mg labetalol hydrochloride per mL of the mixture. Labetalol hydrochloride injection was found to be compatible with and stable (for 24 hours refrigerated or at room temperature) in mixtures with the following solutions: Ringers Injection, USP Lactated Ringers Injection, USP 5% Dextrose and Ringers Injection 5% Lactated Ringers and 5% Dextrose Injection 5% Dextrose Injection, USP 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP 5% Dextrose and 0.2% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP 2.5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP 5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP 5% Dextrose and 0.33% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP Labetalol hydrochloride injection was NOT compatible with 5% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP. Care should be taken when administering alkaline drugs, including furosemide, in combination with labetalol. Compatibility should be assured prior to administering these drugs together.

Inpatient Titration Instructions
Regimen Daily Dose If needed, the total daily dose may be given in three divided doses.
200 mg b.i.d. 400 mg
400 mg b.i.d. 800 mg
800 mg b.i.d. 1600 mg
1200 mg b.i.d. 2400 mg

Indications And Usage

INDICATIONS AND USAGE Labetalol HCl injection is indicated for control of blood pressure in severe hypertension.

Overdosage

OVERDOSAGE Overdosage with labetalol injection causes excessive hypotension that is posture sensitive, and sometimes, excessive bradycardia. Patients should be placed supine and their legs raised if necessary to improve the blood supply to the brain. If overdosage with labetalol follows oral ingestion, gastric lavage or pharmacologically induced emesis (using syrup of ipecac) may be useful for removal of the drug shortly after ingestion. The following additional measures should be employed if necessary: Excessive bradycardia -administer atropine or epinephrine. Cardiac failure -administer a digitalis glycoside and a diuretic. Dopamine or dobutamine may also be useful. Hypotension- administer vasopressors, e.g., norepinephrine. There is pharmacological evidence that norepinephrine may be the drug of choice. Bronchospasm- administer epinephrine and/or an aerosolized beta2-agonist. Seizures- administer diazepam. In severe beta-blocker overdose resulting in hypotension and/or bradycardia, glucagon has been shown to be effective when administered in large doses (5 to 10 mg rapidly over 30 seconds, followed by continuous infusion of 5 mg/hr that can be reduced as the patient improves). Neither hemodialysis nor peritoneal dialysis removes a significant amount of labetalol from the general circulation (<1%). The oral LD50 value of labetalol in the mouse is approximately 600 mg/kg and in the rat is greater than 2 g/kg. The intravenous LD50 in these species is 50 to 60 mg/kg.

Adverse Reactions

ADVERSE REACTIONS Labetalol injection is usually well tolerated. Most adverse effects have been mild and transient and in controlled trials involving 92 patients did not require labetalol withdrawal. Symptomatic postural hypotension (incidence 58%) is likely to occur if patients are tilted or allowed to assume the upright position within 3 hours of receiving labetalol injection. Moderate hypotension occurred in 1 of 100 patients while supine. Increased sweating was noted in 4 of 100 patients, and flushing occurred in 1 of 100 patients. The following also were reported with labetalol injection with the incidence per 100 patients as noted: Cardiovascular System: Ventricular arrhythmia in 1. Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems: Dizziness in 9; tingling of the scalp/skin 7; hypoesthesia (numbness) and vertigo, 1 each. Gastrointestinal System: Nausea in 13; vomiting 4; dyspepsia and taste distortion, 1 each. Metabolic Disorders: Transient increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels occurred in 8 of 100 patients; these were associated with drops in blood pressure, generally in patients with prior renal insufficiency. Psychiatric Disorders: Somnolence/yawning in 3. Respiratory System: Wheezing in 1. Skin: Pruritus in 1. The incidence of adverse reactions depends upon the dose of labetalol. The largest experience is with oral labetalol. Certain of the side effects increased with increasing oral dose as shown in the table below which depicts the entire U.S. therapeutic trials data base for adverse reactions that are clearly or possibly dose related. Labetalol Daily Dose (mg) 200 300 400 600 800 900 1200 1600 2400 Number of Patients 522 181 606 608 503 117 411 242 175 Dizziness (%) 2 3 3 3 5 1 9 13 16 Fatigue 2 1 4 4 5 3 7 6 10 Nausea <1 0 1 2 4 0 7 11 19 Vomiting 0 0 <1 <1 <1 0 1 2 3 Dyspepsia 1 0 2 1 1 0 2 2 4 Paresthesias 2 0 2 2 1 1 2 5 5 Nasal Stuffiness 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 5 6 Ejaculation Failure 0 2 1 2 3 0 4 3 5 Impotence 1 1 1 1 2 4 3 4 3 Edema 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 2 In addition, a number of other less common adverse events have been reported: Cardiovascular: Hypotension, and rarely, syncope, bradycardia, heart block. Liver and Biliary System: Hepatic necrosis, hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, elevated liver function tests. Hypersensitivity: Rare reports of hypersensitivity (e.g., rash, urticaria, pruritus, angioedema, dyspnea) and anaphylactoid reactions. The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta-blocker practolol has not been reported with labetalol during investigational use and extensive foreign marketing experience. Clinical Laboratory Tests Among patients dosed with labetalol tablets, there have been reversible increases of serum transaminases in 4% of patients tested, and more rarely, reversible increases in blood urea.

Contraindications

CONTRAINDICATIONS Labetalol HCl injection is contraindicated in bronchial asthma, overt cardiac failure, greater than first degree heart block, cardiogenic shock, severe bradycardia, other conditions associated with severe and prolonged hypotension, and in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of the product (see WARNINGS ). Beta-blockers, even those with apparent cardioselectivity, should not be used in patients with a history of obstructive airway disease, including asthma.