Sedative-Hypnotic - GABA-Receptor Modulators
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8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of AMBIEN CR in pregnant women. Studies in children to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to zolpidem have not been conducted; however, cases of severe neonatal respiratory depression have been reported when zolpidem was used at the end of pregnancy, especially when taken with other CNS depressants. Children born to mothers taking sedative-hypnotic drugs may be at risk for withdrawal symptoms during the postnatal period. Neonatal flaccidity has also been reported in infants born to mothers who received sedative-hypnotic drugs during pregnancy. AMBIEN CR should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. Administration of zolpidem to pregnant rats and rabbits resulted in adverse effects on offspring development at doses greater than the AMBIEN CR maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 12.5 mg/day (approximately 10 mg/day zolpidem base); however, teratogenicity was not observed. When zolpidem was administered at oral doses of 4, 20, and 100 mg base/kg/day to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis, dose-related decreases in fetal skull ossification occurred at all but the lowest dose, which is approximately 4 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis. In rabbits treated during organogenesis with zolpidem at oral doses of 1, 4, and 16 mg base/kg/day, increased embryo-fetal death and incomplete fetal skeletal ossification occurred at the highest dose. The no-effect dose for embryo-fetal toxicity in rabbits is approximately 8 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis. Administration of zolpidem to rats at oral doses of 4, 20, and 100 mg base/kg/day during the latter part of pregnancy and throughout lactation produced decreased offspring growth and survival at all but the lowest dose, which is approximately 4 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS CNS depressants, including alcohol: Possible adverse additive CNS-depressant effects ( 5.1, 7.1) Imipramine: Decreased alertness observed ( 7.1) Chlorpromazine: Impaired alertness and psychomotor performance observed ( 7.1) CYP3A4 inducers (rifampin or St. John's wort): Combination use may decrease effect ( 7.2) Ketoconazole: Combination use may increase effect ( 7.2) 7.1 CNS-active Drugs Co-administration of zolpidem with other CNS depressants increases the risk of CNS depression. Concomitant use of zolpidem with these drugs may increase drowsiness and psychomotor impairment, including impaired driving ability [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Zolpidem tartrate was evaluated in healthy volunteers in single-dose interaction studies for several CNS drugs. Imipramine, Chlorpromazine Imipramine in combination with zolpidem produced no pharmacokinetic interaction other than a 20% decrease in peak levels of imipramine, but there was an additive effect of decreased alertness. Similarly, chlorpromazine in combination with zolpidem produced no pharmacokinetic interaction, but there was an additive effect of decreased alertness and psychomotor performance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Haloperidol A study involving haloperidol and zolpidem revealed no effect of haloperidol on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of zolpidem. The lack of a drug interaction following single-dose administration does not predict the absence of an effect following chronic administration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Alcohol An additive adverse effect on psychomotor performance between alcohol and oral zolpidem was demonstrated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Sertraline Concomitant administration of zolpidem and sertraline increases exposure to zolpidem [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Fluoxetine After multiple doses of zolpidem tartrate and fluoxetine an increase in the zolpidem half-life (17%) was observed. There was no evidence of an additive effect in psychomotor performance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . 7.2 Drugs that Affect Drug Metabolism via Cytochrome P450 Some compounds known to induce or inhibit CYP3A may affect exposure to zolpidem. The effect of drugs that induce or inhibit other P450 enzymes on the exposure to zolpidem is not known. CYP3A4 Inducers Rifampin Rifampin, a CYP3A4 inducer, significantly reduced the exposure to and the pharmacodynamic effects of zolpidem. Use of Rifampin in combination with zolpidem may decrease the efficacy of zolpidem and is not recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . St. John's wort Use of St. John's wort, a CYP3A4 inducer, in combination with zolpidem may decrease blood levels of zolpidem and is not recommended. CYP3A4 Inhibitors Ketoconazole Ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, increased the exposure to and pharmacodynamic effects of zolpidem. Consideration should be given to using a lower dose of zolpidem when a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor and zolpidem are given together [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] .
Indications And Usage
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE AMBIEN CR (zolpidem tartrate extended-release tablets) is indicated for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance (as measured by wake time after sleep onset). The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy were up to 3 weeks (using polysomnography measurement up to 2 weeks in both adult and elderly patients) and 24 weeks (using patient-reported assessment in adult patients only) in duration [see Clinical Studies (14)] . AMBIEN CR, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A agonist, is indicated for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance. ( 1)
14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Controlled Clinical Trials AMBIEN CR was evaluated in three placebo-controlled studies for the treatment of patients with chronic primary insomnia (as defined in the APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM IV). Adult outpatients (18–64 years) with primary insomnia (N=212) were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, 3-week trial comparing AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg and placebo. AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg decreased wake time after sleep onset (WASO) for the first 7 hours during the first 2 nights and for the first 5 hours after 2 weeks of treatment. AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg was superior to placebo on objective measures (polysomnography recordings) of sleep induction (by decreasing latency to persistent sleep [LPS]) during the first 2 nights of treatment and after 2 weeks of treatment. AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg was also superior to placebo on the patient reported global impression regarding the aid to sleep after the first 2 nights and after 3 weeks of treatment. Elderly outpatients (≥ 65 years) with primary insomnia (N=205) were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, 3-week trial comparing AMBIEN CR 6.25 mg and placebo. AMBIEN CR 6.25 mg decreased wake time after sleep onset (WASO) for the first 6 hours during the first 2 nights and the first 4 hours after 2 weeks of treatment. AMBIEN CR 6.25 mg was superior to placebo on objective measures (polysomnography recordings) of sleep induction (by decreasing LPS) during the first 2 nights of treatment and after 2 weeks on treatment. AMBIEN CR 6.25 mg was superior to placebo on the patient reported global impression regarding the aid to sleep after the first 2 nights and after 3 weeks of treatment. In both studies, in patients treated with AMBIEN CR, polysomnography showed increased wakefulness at the end of the night compared to placebo-treated patients. In a 24-week double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study in adult outpatients (18–64 years) with primary insomnia (N=1025), AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg administered as needed (3 to 7 nights per week) was superior to placebo over 24 weeks, on patient global impression regarding aid to sleep, and on patient-reported specific sleep parameters for sleep induction and sleep maintenance with no significant increased frequency of drug intake observed over time. 14.2 Studies Pertinent to Safety Concerns for Sedative/Hypnotic Drugs Next-day residual effects: In five clinical studies [three controlled studies in adults (18–64 years of age) administered AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg and two controlled studies in the elderly (≥ 65 years of age) administered AMBIEN CR 6.25 mg or 12.5 mg], the effect of AMBIEN CR on vigilance, memory, or motor function were assessed using neurocognitive tests. In these studies, no significant decrease in performance was observed eight hours after a nighttime dose. In addition, no evidence of next-day residual effects was detected with AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg and 6.25 mg using self-ratings of sedation. During the 3-week studies, next-day somnolence was reported by 15% of the adult patients who received 12.5 mg AMBIEN CR versus 2% of the placebo group; next-day somnolence was reported by 6% of the elderly patients who received 6.25 mg AMBIEN CR versus 5% of the placebo group [see Adverse Reactions (6)] . In a 6-month study, the overall incidence of next-day somnolence was 5.7% in the AMBIEN CR group as compared to 2% in the placebo group. Rebound effects: Rebound insomnia, defined as a dose-dependent worsening in sleep parameters (latency, sleep efficiency, and number of awakenings) compared with baseline following discontinuation of treatment, is observed with short- and intermediate-acting hypnotics. In the two 3-week placebo-controlled studies in patients with primary insomnia, a rebound effect was only observed on the first night after abrupt discontinuation of AMBIEN CR. On the second night, there was no worsening compared to baseline in the AMBIEN CR group. In a 6-month placebo-controlled study in which AMBIEN CR was taken as needed (3 to 7 nights per week), within the first month a rebound effect was observed for Total Sleep Time (not for WASO) during the first night off medication. After this first month period, no further rebound insomnia was observed. After final treatment discontinuation no rebound was observed.
Warnings And Cautions
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS CNS depressant effects: Impaired alertness and motor coordination, including risk of morning impairment. Caution patients against driving and other activities requiring complete mental alertness the morning after use. ( 5.1) Need to evaluate for co-morbid diagnoses: Revaluate if insomnia persists after 7 to 10 days of use. ( 5.2) Severe anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions: Angioedema and anaphylaxis have been reported. Do not rechallenge if such reactions occur. ( 5.3) "Sleep-driving" and other complex behaviors while not fully awake. Risk increases with dose and use with other CNS depressants and alcohol. Immediately evaluate any new onset behavioral changes. ( 5.4) Depression: Worsening of depression or, suicidal thinking may occur. Prescribe the least amount of tablets feasible to avoid intentional overdose. ( 5.5) Respiratory Depression: Consider this risk before prescribing in patients with compromised respiratory function. ( 5.6) Hepatic Impairment: Avoid AMBIEN CR use in patients with severe hepatic impairment. ( 5.7) Withdrawal effects: Symptoms may occur with rapid dose reduction or discontinuation. ( 5.8, 9.3) Severe Injuries: Drowsiness may lead to fall including severe injuries. ( 5.9) 5.1 CNS Depressant Effects and Next-Day Impairment AMBIEN CR is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and can impair daytime function in some patients even when used as prescribed. Prescribers should monitor for excess depressant effects, but impairment can occur in the absence of subjective symptoms, and may not be reliably detected by ordinary clinical exam (i.e. less than formal psychomotor testing). While pharmacodynamic tolerance or adaptation to some adverse depressant effects of AMBIEN CR may develop, patients using AMBIEN CR should be cautioned against driving or engaging in other hazardous activities or activities requiring complete mental alertness the day after use. AMBIEN CR is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and can impair daytime function in some patients even when used as prescribed. Prescribers should monitor for excess depressant effects, but impairment can occur in the absence of subjective symptoms, and may not be reliably detected by ordinary clinical exam (i.e. less than formal psychomotor testing). While pharmacodynamic tolerance or adaptation to some adverse depressant effects of AMBIEN CR may develop, patients using AMBIEN CR should be cautioned against driving or engaging in other hazardous activities or activities requiring complete mental alertness the day after use. Additive effects occur with concomitant use of other CNS depressants (e.g. benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol), including daytime use. Downward dose adjustment of AMBIEN CR and concomitant CNS depressants should be considered . Additive effects occur with concomitant use of other CNS depressants (e.g. benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol), including daytime use. Downward dose adjustment of AMBIEN CR and concomitant CNS depressants should be considered [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)] . The use of AMBIEN CR with other sedative-hypnotics (including other zolpidem products) at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended. The use of AMBIEN CR with other sedative-hypnotics (including other zolpidem products) at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended. The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased if AMBIEN CR is taken with less than a full night of sleep remaining (7 to 8 hours); if higher than the recommended dose is taken; if co-administered with other CNS depressants or alcohol; or co-administered with other drugs that increase the blood levels of zolpidem. Patients should be warned against driving and other activities requiring complete mental alertness if Ambien CR is taken in these circumstances [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Clinical Studies (14.2)] . Vehicle drivers and machine operators should be warned that, as with other hypnotics, there may be a possible risk of adverse reactions including drowsiness, prolonged reaction time, dizziness, sleepiness, blurred/double vision, reduced alertness and impaired driving the morning after therapy. In order to minimize this risk a full night of sleep (7-8 hours) is recommended. 5.2 Need to Evaluate for Co-morbid Diagnoses Because sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated. Worsening of insomnia or the emergence of new thinking or behavior abnormalities may be the consequence of an unrecognized psychiatric or physical disorder. Such findings have emerged during the course of treatment with sedative/hypnotic drugs, including zolpidem. 5.3 Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions Cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics, including zolpidem. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the throat, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with zolpidem should not be rechallenged with the drug. 5.4 Abnormal Thinking and Behavioral Changes Abnormal thinking and behavior changes have been reported in patients treated with sedative/hypnotics, including AMBIEN CR. Some of these changes included decreased inhibition (e.g. aggressiveness and extroversion that seemed out of character), bizarre behavior, agitation and depersonalization. Visual and auditory hallucinations have been reported. In controlled trials, <1% of adults with insomnia reported hallucinations. In a clinical trial, 7% of pediatric patients treated with AMBIEN 0.25 mg/kg taken at bedtime reported hallucinations versus 0% treated with placebo [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] . Complex behaviors such as "sleep-driving" (i.e., driving while not fully awake after ingestion of a sedative-hypnotic, with amnesia for the event) have been reported in sedative-hypnotic-naive as well as in sedative-hypnotic-experienced persons. Although behaviors such as "sleep-driving" have occurred with AMBIEN CR alone at therapeutic doses, the co-administration of alcohol and other CNS depressants increases the risk of such behaviors, as does the use of AMBIEN CR at doses exceeding the maximum recommended dose. Due to the risk to the patient and the community, discontinuation of AMBIEN CR should be strongly considered for patients who report a "sleep-driving" episode. Other complex behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have been reported in patients who are not fully awake after taking a sedative-hypnotic. As with "sleep-driving", patients usually do not remember these events. Amnesia, anxiety and other neuro-psychiatric symptoms may also occur. It can rarely be determined with certainty whether a particular instance of the abnormal behaviors listed above is drug induced, spontaneous in origin, or a result of an underlying psychiatric or physical disorder. Nonetheless, the emergence of any new behavioral sign or symptom of concern requires careful and immediate evaluation. 5.5 Use in Patients with Depression In primarily depressed patients treated with sedative-hypnotics, worsening of depression, and suicidal thoughts and actions (including completed suicides), have been reported. Suicidal tendencies may be present in such patients and protective measures may be required. Intentional overdosage is more common in this group of patients; therefore, the lowest number of tablets that is feasible should be prescribed for the patient at any one time. 5.6 Respiratory Depression Although studies with 10 mg zolpidem tartrate did not reveal respiratory depressant effects at hypnotic doses in healthy subjects or in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a reduction in the Total Arousal Index, together with a reduction in lowest oxygen saturation and increase in the times of oxygen desaturation below 80% and 90%, was observed in patients with mild-to-moderate sleep apnea when treated with zolpidem compared to placebo. Since sedative-hypnotics have the capacity to depress respiratory drive, precautions should be taken if AMBIEN CR is prescribed to patients with compromised respiratory function. Post-marketing reports of respiratory insufficiency in patients receiving 10 mg of zolpidem tartrate, most of whom had pre-existing respiratory impairment, have been reported. The risk of respiratory depression should be considered prior to prescribing AMBIEN CR in patients with respiratory impairment including sleep apnea and myasthenia gravis. 5.7 Precipitation of Hepatic Encephalopathy GABA agonists such as zolpidem tartrate have been associated with precipitation of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with hepatic insufficiency. In addition, patients with hepatic insufficiency do not clear zolpidem tartrate as rapidly as patients with normal hepatic function. Avoid AMBIEN CR use in patients with severe hepatic impairment as it may contribute to encephalopathy [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . 5.8 Withdrawal Effects There have been reports of withdrawal signs and symptoms following the rapid dose decrease or abrupt discontinuation of zolpidem. Monitor patients for tolerance, abuse, and dependence [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2) and (9.3)] . 5.9 Severe Injuries Zolpidem can cause drowsiness and a decreased level of consciousness, which may lead to falls and consequently to severe injuries. Severe injuries such as hip fractures and intracranial hemorrhage have been reported.
Overdosage10 OVERDOSAGE 10.1 Signs and Symptoms In postmarketing experience of overdose with zolpidem tartrate alone, or in combination with CNS-depressant agents, impairment of consciousness ranging from somnolence to coma, cardiovascular and/or respiratory compromise and fatal outcomes have been reported. 10.2 Recommended Treatment General symptomatic and supportive measures should be used along with immediate gastric lavage where appropriate. Intravenous fluids should be administered as needed. Zolpidem's sedative hypnotic effect was shown to be reduced by flumazenil and therefore may be useful; however, flumazenil administration may contribute to the appearance of neurological symptoms (convulsions). As in all cases of drug overdose, respiration, pulse, blood pressure, and other appropriate signs should be monitored and general supportive measures employed. Hypotension and CNS depression should be monitored and treated by appropriate medical intervention. Sedating drugs should be withheld following zolpidem overdosage, even if excitation occurs. The value of dialysis in the treatment of overdosage has not been determined, although hemodialysis studies in patients with renal failure receiving therapeutic doses have demonstrated that zolpidem is not dialyzable. As with the management of all overdosage, the possibility of multiple drug ingestion should be considered. The physician may wish to consider contacting a poison control center for up-to-date information on the management of hypnotic drug product overdosage.
Adverse Reactions6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling: CNS-depressant effects and next-day impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Serious anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Abnormal thinking and behavior changes, and complex behaviors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Withdrawal effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Most commonly observed adverse reactions (> 10% in either elderly or adult patients) are: headache, next-day somnolence and dizziness ( 6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC at 1-800-633-1610 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or http://www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Associated with discontinuation of treatment: In 3-week clinical trials in adults and elderly patients (> 65 years), 3.5% (7/201) patients receiving AMBIEN CR 6.25 or 12.5 mg discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction as compared to 0.9% (2/216) of patients on placebo. The reaction most commonly associated with discontinuation in patients treated with AMBIEN CR was somnolence (1%). In a 6-month study in adult patients (18–64 years of age), 8.5% (57/669) of patients receiving AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg as compared to 4.6% on placebo (16/349) discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction. Reactions most commonly associated with discontinuation of AMBIEN CR included anxiety (anxiety, restlessness or agitation) reported in 1.5% (10/669) of patients as compared to 0.3% (1/349) of patients on placebo, and depression (depression, major depression or depressed mood) reported in 1.5% (10/669) of patients as compared to 0.3% (1/349) of patients on placebo. Data from a clinical study in which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor- (SSRI-) treated patients were given zolpidem revealed that four of the seven discontinuations during double-blind treatment with zolpidem (n=95) were associated with impaired concentration, continuing or aggravated depression, and manic reaction; one patient treated with placebo (n=97) was discontinued after an attempted suicide. Most commonly observed adverse reactions in controlled trials: During treatment with AMBIEN CR in adults and elderly at daily doses of 12.5 mg and 6.25 mg, respectively, each for three weeks, the most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of AMBIEN CR were headache, next-day somnolence, and dizziness. In the 6-month trial evaluating AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg, the adverse reaction profile was consistent with that reported in short-term trials, except for a higher incidence of anxiety (6.3% for AMBIEN CR versus 2.6% for placebo). Adverse reactions observed at an incidence of ≥1% in controlled trials: The following tables enumerate treatment-emergent adverse reaction frequencies that were observed at an incidence equal to 1% or greater among patients with insomnia who received AMBIEN CR in placebo-controlled trials. Events reported by investigators were classified utilizing the MedDRA dictionary for the purpose of establishing event frequencies. The prescriber should be aware that these figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of side effects in the course of usual medical practice, in which patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in these clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigators involving related drug products and uses, since each group of drug trials is conducted under a different set of conditions. However, the cited figures provide the physician with a basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and nondrug factors to the incidence of side effects in the population studied. The following tables were derived from results of two placebo-controlled efficacy trials involving AMBIEN CR. These trials involved patients with primary insomnia who were treated for 3 weeks with AMBIEN CR at doses of 12.5 mg (Table 1) or 6.25 mg (Table 2), respectively. The tables include only adverse reactions occurring at an incidence of at least 1% for AMBIEN CR patients and with an incidence greater than that seen in the placebo patients. Table 1. Incidences of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions in a 3-Week Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial in Adults (percentage of patients reporting) Body System/Adverse Reaction Reactions reported by at least 1% of patients treated with AMBIEN CR and at greater frequency than in the placebo group. AMBIEN CR 12.5 mg Placebo (N = 102) (N = 110) Infections and infestations Influenza 3 0 Gastroenteritis 1 0 Labyrinthitis 1 0 Metabolism and nutrition disorders Appetite disorder 1 0 Psychiatric disorders Hallucinations Hallucinations included hallucinations NOS as well as visual and hypnogogic hallucinations. 4 0 Disorientation 3 2 Anxiety 2 0 Depression 2 0 Psychomotor retardation 2 0 Binge eating 1 0 Depersonalization 1 0 Disinhibition 1 0 Euphoric mood 1 0 Mood swings 1 0 Stress symptoms 1 0 Nervous system disorders Headache 19 16 Somnolence 15 2 Dizziness 12 5 Memory disorders Memory disorders include: memory impairment, amnesia, anterograde amnesia. 3 0 Balance disorder 2 0 Disturbance in attention 2 0 Hypoesthesia 2 1 Ataxia 1 0 Paresthesia 1 0 Eye disorders Visual disturbance 3 0 Eye redness 2 0 Vision blurred 2 1 Altered visual depth perception 1 0 Asthenopia 1 0 Ear and labyrinth disorders Vertigo 2 0 Tinnitus 1 0 Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders Throat irritation 1 0 Gastrointestinal disorders Nausea 7 4 Constipation 2 0 Abdominal discomfort 1 0 Abdominal tenderness 1 0 Frequent bowel movements 1 0 Gastroesophageal reflux disease 1 0 Vomiting 1 0 Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Rash 1 0 Skin wrinkling 1 0 Urticaria 1 0 Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Back pain 4 3 Myalgia 4 0 Neck pain 1 0 Reproductive system and breast disorders Menorrhagia 1 0 General disorders and administration site conditions Fatigue 3 2 Asthenia 1 0 Chest discomfort 1 0 Investigations Blood pressure increased 1 0 Body temperature increased 1 0 Injury, poisoning and procedural complications Contusion 1 0 Social circumstances Exposure to poisonous plant 1 0 Table 2. Incidences of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions in a 3-Week Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial in Elderly (percentage of patients reporting) Body System/Adverse Reaction Reactions reported by at least 1% of patients treated with AMBIEN CR and at greater frequency than in the placebo group. AMBIEN CR 6.25 mg Placebo (N=99) (N=106) Infections and infestations Nasopharyngitis 6 4 Lower respiratory tract infection 1 0 Otitis externa 1 0 Upper respiratory tract infection 1 0 Psychiatric disorders Anxiety 3 2 Psychomotor retardation 2 0 Apathy 1 0 Depressed mood 1 0 Nervous system disorders Headache 14 11 Dizziness 8 3 Somnolence 6 5 Burning sensation 1 0 Dizziness postural 1 0 Memory disorders Memory disorders include: memory impairment, amnesia, anterograde amnesia. 1 0 Muscle contractions involuntary 1 0 Paresthesia 1 0 Tremor 1 0 Cardiac disorders Palpitations 2 0 Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders Dry throat 1 0 Gastrointestinal disorders Flatulence 1 0 Vomiting 1 0 Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Rash 1 0 Urticaria 1 0 Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Arthralgia 2 0 Muscle cramp 2 1 Neck pain 2 0 Renal and urinary disorders Dysuria 1 0 Reproductive system and breast disorders Vulvovaginal dryness 1 0 General disorders and administration site conditions Influenza like illness 1 0 Pyrexia 1 0 Injury, poisoning and procedural complications Neck injury 1 0 Dose relationship for adverse reactions: There is evidence from dose comparison trials suggesting a dose relationship for many of the adverse reactions associated with zolpidem use, particularly for certain CNS and gastrointestinal adverse events. Other adverse reactions observed during the premarketing evaluation of AMBIEN CR: Other treatment-emergent adverse reactions associated with participation in AMBIEN CR studies (those reported at frequencies of <1%) were not different in nature or frequency to those seen in studies with immediate-release zolpidem tartrate, which are listed below. Adverse Events Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Immediate-Release Zolpidem Tartrate: Immediate-release zolpidem tartrate was administered to 3,660 subjects in clinical trials throughout the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Treatment-emergent adverse events associated with clinical trial participation were recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing treatment-emergent adverse events, similar types of untoward events were grouped into a smaller number of standardized event categories and classified utilizing a modified World Health Organization (WHO) dictionary of preferred terms. The frequencies presented, therefore, represent the proportions of the 3,660 individuals exposed to zolpidem, at all doses, who experienced an event of the type cited on at least one occasion while receiving zolpidem. All reported treatment-emergent adverse events are included, except those already listed in the table above of adverse events in placebo-controlled studies, those coding terms that are so general as to be uninformative, and those events where a drug cause was remote. It is important to emphasize that, although the events reported did occur during treatment with AMBIEN, they were not necessarily caused by it. Adverse events are further classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: frequent adverse events are defined as those occurring in greater than 1/100 subjects; infrequent adverse events are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients; rare events are those occurring in less than 1/1,000 patients. Autonomic nervous system: Frequent: dry mouth. Infrequent: increased sweating, pallor, postural hypotension, syncope. Rare: abnormal accommodation, altered saliva, flushing, glaucoma, hypotension, impotence, increased saliva, tenesmus. Body as a whole: Frequent: asthenia. Infrequent: chest pain, edema, falling, fever, malaise, trauma. Rare: allergic reaction, allergy aggravated, anaphylactic shock, face edema, hot flashes, increased ESR, pain, restless legs, rigors, tolerance increased, weight decrease. Cardiovascular system: Infrequent: cerebrovascular disorder, hypertension, tachycardia. Rare: angina pectoris, arrhythmia, arteritis, circulatory failure, extrasystoles, hypertension aggravated, myocardial infarction, phlebitis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary edema, varicose veins, ventricular tachycardia. Central and peripheral nervous system: Frequent: ataxia, confusion, drowsiness, drugged feeling, euphoria, insomnia, lethargy, lightheadedness, vertigo. Infrequent: agitation, decreased cognition, detached, difficulty concentrating, dysarthria, emotional lability, hallucination, hypoesthesia, illusion, leg cramps, migraine, nervousness, paresthesia, sleeping (after daytime dosing), speech disorder, stupor, tremor. Rare: abnormal gait, abnormal thinking, aggressive reaction, apathy, appetite increased, decreased libido, delusion, dementia, depersonalization, dysphasia, feeling strange, hypokinesia, hypotonia, hysteria, intoxicated feeling, manic reaction, neuralgia, neuritis, neuropathy, neurosis, panic attacks, paresis, personality disorder, somnambulism, suicide attempts, tetany, yawning. Gastrointestinal system: Frequent: diarrhea, dyspepsia, hiccup. Infrequent: anorexia, constipation, dysphagia, flatulence, gastroenteritis. Rare: enteritis, eructation, esophagospasm, gastritis, hemorrhoids, intestinal obstruction, rectal hemorrhage, tooth caries. Hematologic and lymphatic system: Rare: anemia, hyperhemoglobinemia, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, macrocytic anemia, purpura, thrombosis. Immunologic system: Infrequent: infection. Rare: abscess herpes simplex herpes zoster, otitis externa, otitis media. Liver and biliary system: Infrequent: abnormal hepatic function, increased SGPT. Rare: bilirubinemia, increased SGOT. Metabolic and nutritional: Infrequent: hyperglycemia, thirst. Rare: gout, hypercholesteremia, hyperlipidemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased BUN, periorbital edema. Musculoskeletal system: Infrequent: arthritis. Rare: arthrosis, muscle weakness, sciatica, tendinitis. Reproductive system: Infrequent: menstrual disorder, vaginitis. Rare: breast fibroadenosis, breast neoplasm, breast pain. Respiratory system: Frequent: sinusitis. Infrequent: bronchitis, coughing, dyspnea. Rare: bronchospasm, respiratory depression, epistaxis, hypoxia, laryngitis, pneumonia. Skin and appendages: Infrequent: pruritus. Rare: acne, bullous eruption, dermatitis, furunculosis, injection-site inflammation, photosensitivity reaction, urticaria. Special senses: Frequent: diplopia, vision abnormal. Infrequent: eye irritation, eye pain, scleritis, taste perversion, tinnitus. Rare: conjunctivitis, corneal ulceration, lacrimation abnormal, parosmia, photopsia. Urogenital system: Frequent: urinary tract infection. Infrequent: cystitis, urinary incontinence. Rare: acute renal failure, dysuria, micturition frequency, nocturia, polyuria, pyelonephritis, renal pain, urinary retention. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of AMBIEN CR. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Liver and biliary system: acute hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed liver injury with or without jaundice (i.e., bilirubin >2×ULN, alkaline phosphatase ≥2×ULN, transaminase ≥5×ULN).
Recent major changes
Dosage and Administration, Dosage in Adults ( 2.1) 08/2016 Dosage and Administration, Special Populations ( 2.2) 12/2016 Warnings and Precautions, CNS Depressant Effects and Next-Day Impairment ( 5.1) 08/2016 Warnings and Precautions, Precipitation of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( 5.7) 12/2016